Public speaking is a process of information transfer, the main purpose of which is to convince listeners of the correctness of certain provisions. Planning a public statement depends on the topic of the report, the goals and objectives of the speaker, his or her individual characteristics, and the composition of the audience.
The purpose of the speech is to provide new information that requires reflection and to encourage listeners to act, to make them accept or change their point of view on the stated problem. Knowledge of the goal enhances attention. If the speaker does not think about the aim of the report, he or she will not succeed.
How to Write a Speech Outline
The purpose of the public statement is laid in the so-called core idea. This is the main thesis that needs to be articulated from the very beginning. The report may have several pivotal ideas, but no more than three. The core idea makes it possible to set the tone of the speech. To formulate the core idea of the statement means to find its goals. The topic of the speech should be concretized yet interesting and understandable to the audience. The speaker should own the topic. This means that all the facts should be collected, systematized, studied, they should cover the phenomenon from all sides. This is the application of systems analysis in practice. In order to achieve success, the speaker needs to clearly define concepts (terms), offer examples, present evidence statistics, set out concepts, illustrate thoughts with additional material. It is necessary to take into account that the topic should be presented in a short time, satisfying the listeners' requests. Regarding the topic and purpose of the speech, the following rules should be followed.
- Do not try to cover everything in one report. Any topic has the possibility of both wider and narrower coverage, depending on the circumstances.
- The topic of the speech should not be too broad.
- The topic should not be too narrow. Every topic is related to a broader issue and can be generalized.
- Establish a clear link between the theme and the problem.
In the process of refining the topic and determining the target setting, it is recommended to check yourself with questions:
- Does the topic interest me / can it be interesting for me?
- Do I know enough about this issue and can I find all the necessary information?
- Does my speech match my level of knowledge and experience?
- Will my theme and purpose correspond to the level of knowledge, interests, and attitudes of the listeners?
The preparation for the public statement consists in developing your attitude to the subject of the speech, to formulate your thoughts on a particular issue, and to analyze your ideas from the perspective of the future audience.
Search and Selection of Materials
After understanding the topic and purpose of the speech, you may proceed to the search and selection of materials, which includes a number of stages.
The search for literature on the main issues of the topic and the selection of scientific content that meets the purpose of the speech. The main sources are official documents; scientific, popular science, educational, and reference books; articles from newspapers and magazines; radio and television transmissions; the results of opinion polls; own knowledge and experience; personal contacts, conversations, interviews; reflections and observations. To make the report meaningful, it is better to use not one source but several ones.
Study of life phenomena (facts, figures, situations, etc.) for theoretical analysis and synthesis in the report, so that other students understand the underlying laws and trends. It should be remembered that digital data is better demonstrated by means of tables and graphs (in order to facilitate perception and not abuse their reading). Best of all, when the public statement contains a limited amount of digital material, it is better to refer to it rather than cite it completely, as the numbers tire the audience rather than generate interest.
Selection of examples from practice (public and individual) to illustrate and provide an intelligible explanation of complex theoretical issues. It is necessary to use the so-called local material, i.e., relevant to students (for example, from the life of the study group). Such material enlivens the performance, attracts the attention of listeners to it, and arouses their interest in the performance.
In order to know how to start a speech properly, the speaker should be able to conduct a certain organizational, structural beginning through the whole process of working on the text. This process ultimately makes it easier for the listeners to assimilate the material, gives the report a compositional unity, ensures agreement and even the known harmony of the parts of the public statement. The structure of the text is understood as its construction, the ratio of its individual parts, and the attitude of each part to the whole report as a whole. There are some main elements of the structure.
- Introduction to which the speaker attracts the attention of listeners and adjusts them to the topic of his or her speech.
- The core idea.
- The main part, which reveals the main points of the text.
The introduction is required in every report. It is dictated by the need to start something, to attract the attention of listeners, and to find contact with the audience. Orientation material provides the audience with the necessary to understand the main content of the speech. This material is connected with the core idea, it contains the necessary information, and with its help, the speaker establishes trust in himself and shows the importance of the message to the audience. You can start your speech in one of the following ways.
- Topics and key issues; the characteristic of their theoretical and practical value.
- Direct invitation to a joint discussion, the search for answers to the questions posed.
- A brief description of the subject matter, the formulation of the main idea of the speech.
- Expression of your attitude to the audience.
The core idea of the report should be presented in the form of a brief, clear and precise position. If this idea is not missed, the audience cannot understand what it is about and loses attention. The main part of the report unfolds the core idea, reveals its aspects. It presents the main material, the ideas and propositions put forward are consistently explained, their correctness is proved, and the listeners are led to the necessary conclusions.
The Content of a Perfect Speech
The development plan of the main part should be clear. The subject of the speech should be disclosed specifically and consistently. As much as possible factual materials and necessary arguments should be selected. Examples from fiction, proverbs, sayings, and phraseological expressions enliven the performance. Even in serious content, it is appropriate to introduce elements of humor. There are six methods of presenting the main part.
Inductive method is the presentation of material from the particular to the general. The speaker begins with a special case and then leads the listeners to generalizations and conclusions. This method is used in campaign speeches.
Deductive method. Presentation of the material from the general to the particular. The speaker at the beginning of speech puts forward some statements and then explains their meaning with concrete examples and facts. This method is widely used in propaganda speeches.
The method of analogy. It lies in the comparison of various phenomena, events, or facts. Usually, a parallel is drawn with a thing that is well-known to the audience. It contributes to a better understanding of the material presented and helps to establish the perception of basic ideas.
Concentric method. It is based on the location of the material around the main problem raised by the speaker. He or she moves from a general consideration of the central issue to a more specific one and offers the in-depth analysis of it.
Step method is a consistent presentation of one question after another. Having considered a problem, the speaker no longer returns to it.
The historical method is the presentation of the material in chronological order, the description and analysis of changes that have occurred in a particular person or a subject over time.
The use of various methods of material presentation in the same report allows you to make the structure of its main part more original, non-standard. However, it should be remembered that no matter what method you used, your speech should be conclusive, as well as your judgments and statements are convincing.
Secrets of a Successful Public Statement
Mulling over the structure of the speech, a student should not forget about maintaining the attention of the listeners. When compiling your report, you should determine which of the existing techniques to use.
- Addressing listeners with an unexpected question;
- speech interruption, use of a pause;
- examples from fiction, phraseological expressions, etc.
When setting out the main part of the text, it is very important not to waste time, be sure to leave it for the conclusion. The conclusion is a critical compositional part of any public statement. It follows from the main goal of the core idea of the speech, or the audience is encouraged to take certain actions.
Some communication researchers propose to complete the report with a synthesis, i.e., it is possible to emphasize once again the magnitude of the problem, the loyalty of the main idea, the fruitfulness of the method implemented while using such techniques as personal experience, humor, or illustrations.
How to Speak Properly
A successful public speech consists of the information and the image of the speaker. Therefore, it is necessary to know about the criteria by which the speaker is evaluated by the audience. Listeners value natural behavior, the good technique of speech, and maintaining contact with the audience.
The naturalness of behavior is relaxedness, a benevolent attitude towards listeners, a conversational style of communication; it is the ability to “break away” from the text, not to read from a sheet, not to speak in an official, memorized tone. A good speaker has natural gestures and postures. Unnatural behavior is immediately detected by the audience. You should avoid muscle squeezing, stiffness, lack of gestures (or, on the contrary, excessive mobility, fussiness, extra active gesticulation), detachment from the audience.
Now you know the secrets of successful speakers. However, if you do not have enough time, you can use good speech delivery. Professional writers can create the best speeches for students.