Essay conclusion

The essay conclusion must come in the final paragraph and should summarize all of the arguments (revealed using topic sentences) that were made in the essay. The point is to back up your thesis statement by summarizing all of the evidence presented within the essay and reinforce your overall argument.

Think of the essay conclusion as all of the facts condensed into one paragraph, from which conclusions about the essay matter can be drawn. There is no real general structure for a conclusion - each will be unique but should nevertheless contain the points made above. Writing the conclusion should not be too difficult as it is just a matter of condensing the main ideas you have already explained. It's generally said that if a writer cannot sum up their main points easily, then they do not have a clear understanding of their own thesis.

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Make sure that the conclusion corresponds to the introduction of the essay - you need to restate the main idea once again without repeating the exact same phrase. The conclusion is meant to reinforce the issues you have just written about, and so you should adhere to the main idea that you wrote in the introduction of your essay. Should it be that the main idea of the essay has been altered while writing the main paragraphs, then the introduction should be reformulated.

Begin the essay conclusion by reminding readers of your thesis. This is the part of your essay where you need to emphasize your arguments and convince readers that the assertions you have made are correct and true, so you will need to go over each of the ideas you have made carefully. Bear in mind that the main idea of your thesis should be restated fairly often throughout the essay, before emphasizing your argument in the most compelling fashion in the conclusion. You can reiterate certain points you have made by merging their ideas together so that they underpin and verify the argument you are making. The iterations should also tie-in together with your introduction. Consider the points you have suggested in the introduction; your proof of these points should be underlined in the most compelling way in the conclusion.

Uncompromising language should be used in the delivery of the essay conclusion. You need to write with an air of authority which cannot easily be contradicted. This can be achieved by using an authoritative tone of voice in the conclusion. For example, you could say that "It is quite clear that..." or "There is no doubt that this has been proven because..."

Remember also that you should never write in first person narrative in your essay conclusion. Try to avoid using the word "conclude" or "conclusion", as this will make you sound less accomplished. Sentences such as "in conclusion then..." are not appropriate. It is better to attempt to use language which is more constructive, for example "We can see that there is a clear link between the industrial revolution and colonialism."

The key to writing an essay conclusion that is truly outstanding is to leave a lasting impact on the reader, which can be achieved through consistently restating certain points which you believe have been proved in the discourse of your essay. Finally, a powerful quote at the end of the conclusion can be highly effective in echoing the main points you have made.

Strategies of Making the Conclusion Effective

  •  “So What” game 

If you feel embarrassed and stuck, if you cannot find any new argument in favor of your opinion, refer to your friend to get some assistance. Ask your friend whether he or she would care about your present conclusion. Ask them “So what?” question and listen to the answer carefully. For instance, you can say, “Douglass found education really valuable.” The friend may ask, “So what?” You say, “It was a valuable aspect as he could feel free being educated.” The friend responds, “Why should I care?” You say, “The owners of plantations did not let the slaves get education; otherwise, they would lose control over the people. Having received education, Douglass got personal control over his life.” It is easy to play this game alone, asking questions and improving the draft to make the ideas stronger.

  • Return to the introductory themes

Make the text function as a circle. For instance, if the beginning of the essay was presenting a scenario, it can be also used at the end of the essay to gain new seeing of the subject. There can be the key words used both at the introductory and concluding parts to create the parallel structure.

  • Synthesizing instead of summarization

A concise summary of the key concepts of the paper in the conclusion essay part should replace mere repetition of the ideas from the text. The readers should understand how the main aspects of the paper were constructed and how the examples were fitted together.

  • Provocative quotations or insights from readings or previous research
  • Suggested course of action

You may offer a new solution or further questions to conduct the study. Redirect the thoughts of the readers and assist them in applying the ideas practically. Make the implications broader. 

  • Focus on broader implications

Analyzing a certain event in the framework of the Civil Rights Movement, specify the importance of the Civil Rights Movement as such. Writing about the writer’s style of Virginia Woolf, demonstrate her impact on the feminism or other authors of that time. 

Wrong Strategies: Don’ts

  1. Don’t start your conclusion with overused word combinations, such as “to sum up,” “in conclusion,” “in closing,” etc. Preparing speeches, you can benefits from those phrases; however, in writing, they look too boring and trite.
  2. Don’t present the ideas of your thesis in the final paragraphs for the first time.
  3. Don’t introduce new subtopics or ideas in the concluding paragraphs.
  4. Don’t merely paraphrase the thesis. Make the changes substantive.
  5. Don’t forget that the paper is analytical writing; so, emotional statements and too sentimental appeals do not look proper.
  6. Don’t present any statistics or quotations in the essay conclusion as they should appear in the body parts.

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Ineffective Conclusions: Types

  • Conclusion “That’s my story”. 

Merely paraphrasing the introductory part with the thesis, this conclusion is too short. Besides, it never goes beyond the ordinary ideas. It clearly demonstrates that the author cannot develop an effective conclusion with fresh ideas. An example of such conclusions is the following: To sum up, being a pioneer in the field of education, Frederick Douglass proved that getting knowledge and education is a strong power that causes social change.

  • Conclusion “Sherlock Holmes”. 

It may happen that the thesis is presented only in the final paragraph of the essay. The authors do that to keep the interest of the readers to the very end and maintain the secret. It looks as a technique that boosts the dramatic nature of writing. It, actually, resembles the method used by Sherlock Holmes who solves the mysteries and reveals his thoughts only in the last pages of the book. The readers then are expected to say ‘wow’ because they do not anticipate any surprises and are caught off balance. Actually, they expect to see an analytical approach to the raised topic with the academic style of writing maintained and the thesis stated at the beginning of the text. For instance, the paper may present a number of incidents taken from the actual book but without any specific views of Douglass on education and its value. And then the writer states, “The mentioned evidence proves that education is viewed by Douglass as an effective method of getting free and undermining the power of the slave owners.”

  • Conclusion “We will definitely overcome”, “The USA is great”/ “I am a woman”.

This type of an essay conclusion is focused on emotional approach and makes an appeal using sentimental attitudes. An analytical text may be completely out of tune with such a conclusion as it is much better to present effective comments on the topic than to be too emotional. For example, the following conclusion has a number of drawbacks: “Frederick Douglass and other outstanding geniuses of the USA have noticed the bright light given by education and its shining beacon lit the road to freedom to those who were ready to follow the example.”

  •  Conclusion “Grab bag”. 

Giving additional information, which is not integrated in the main body, the text makes it difficult for the readers to follow all the details. Thorough research has provided the author with multiple facts and evidence, and he cannot leave out any of them. Thus, the essay is disorganized and confusing. For example, “Along with acting as a pioneer in education, Frederick Douglass is an excellent example of the American South masculinity. Besides, he provides exciting ideas for the historians in terms of slave resistance. He also acknowledged the value of family relations in the communities based on the ideas of slavery and his family relationships prove that.”

Cited Works and Related Research

Working on the handout, we have consulted certain research papers and previous works on the topic. We encourage you to add to the list of resources doing your own research. Please note that the presented list of sources cannot be used as an example to follow as it may contradict the requirements to the required citation style. You may get the needed guidance on formatting in the   citation tutorial.

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Essay on Contractor Performance from Award to Conclusion


Federal government has always awarded various contractors based on financial bids as well as technical bids. This has seen lower bidders taking government projects. However, since federal government is ruled and controlled by the U.S. constitution, the same has created strict contracting regulations. These regulations dictate the actions that should be taken by the government contracting officers when negotiating a contract. As a result, it has complicated the contracting process due to the existence of non-pleasant threshold requirements that have adversely undermined the government in having long-term relationship with quality contractors. Factors such as acquisition costs and federal regulations have underpinned government’s effort towards contracting with performing contractors. It is in this regard that this paper discusses means by which the government can encourage performing contractors in complying with the contract requirements for a given complex acquisition.
Keywords: federal contracting, acquisition, contracts, performing contractors, requirements


In the United States, the government and private owners have often categorized contractors in terms of their capabilities and their previous performance record. These categories are usually considered in contract awarding and prequalification since it has been established that the fact that we have the lowest bidder does not necessary mean that the government will incur the lowest cost. As a result, the government as well as private owners has often awarded contracts based on financial as well as technical bid.
When Performance-Based Service Contracting was established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget in 1998, it was meant to emphasize on all aspect of contract acquisition and awarding. It was noted that government contracts being awarded to bidders should consider the aim for the work done rather than the way of work performance. In so doing, this kind of approach provided contractors with freedom that allowed them meeting government’s performance objectives thereby achieving appropriate performance levels which were used in making payment for the contracts. Read more...