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Free Adolescents Who Abuse Alcohol Essay Sample

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Alcohol is one of the most abused substances in America today. It has almost become a national crisis because so many adolescents are abusing alcohol, and suffering for their alcohol use. It is estimated that close to 3000 adolescents die in alcohol related accidents annually. Alcohol has made some adolescents to break relationships with parents, and become rude to teachers. Scholars post that the education of some adolescents is in trouble because of taking alcohol among other drugs.

There are some factors that make teenagers susceptible to alcohol use. One of the factors that make adolescents susceptible to alcohol use is the environment they live in and the people around them. If teenagers live with parents, who drink, then the possibility that they will drink is remarkably high. In addition, if their friends drink, they will be drawn into the habit of drinking. Thus, the environmental aspect is quite important in adolescent drinking.

Another factor that makes adolescents susceptible to drink alcohol is the hereditary factor. It has been established that if there is drinking of alcohol in the family line, then the teenager will be prone to drink. Genetic factors contribute to a lot of adolescent drinking. Hereditary alcoholism is remarkably difficult to control. The desire to engage in risk activities makes most adolescents engage in drinking. This is because alcohol seems adventurous to most teenagers. They want to experiment with the risks that come with alcohol taking. It is important to note that adolescents are in the developmental stage, and they want to play with risk. This makes them drink beer and do other activities that are risky.

Psychiatric and comorbidity factors also make adolescents susceptible to drinking. Those children who are naturally disruptive, and given to depression are also known to engage in drinking alcohol. Those psychiatric problems they encounter make them susceptible to drinking drugs. It also makes them susceptible to taking other drugs.

There are also many other factors that make adolescents susceptible to alcohol taking. They include factors like personality, schooling problems, family issues and identity problems among other factors. The essay will not delve into them because of the brevity of the paper. The paper will look at the ways which school based professional counselors can use to help these adolescents.

One of the best ways of helping these adolescents is to give them information concerning the harmful effects of alcohol. If adolescents are told of the harm alcohol does to their brains, they might stop alcohol use. This is because most adolescents are ignorant to the harmful effects of alcohol. If PSCs tell them the damage does to their schooling and social relations most adolescents relent from taking alcohol. Some scholars despise this method. They call it a scare tactic. The fact is that it works. It has worked for thousands of students.

Another way of helping these kids is by simply listening to them. This is for the reason that most of these kids are hurting and they take to alcohol as a way of escape. They want to forget the pain of their parents separating. They also want to imagine that they are not poor. If their PSCs give them a listening hear, then they can be able to stop drinking.

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Adolescent drinking is a problem that cannot be solved by the PSCs alone. All the players are expected to help solve this problem. These include the parents the state and faith based organizations like churches.

The book has 14 chapters. The essay is going to summarize chapter 7-14.Chapter seven is about summarizing and interpreting data using statistics. Two statistical methods are used to   analyze data. One of these methods is descriptive statistics. The other method is inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics are used to summarize data. Two main methods are used in descriptive statistics. The two are central tendency and variability. These two methods are mathematical ways of summarizing data. They are tied together by the use of graphs, and tables. Inferential statistics are used to test hypotheses developed in psychology. The chapter also describes the various kinds of hypotheses. Null hypothesis is described and also significance testing.

Chapter 8 talks about research reporting. It reports that in psychology and other social sciences the style of writing used is APA (American psychological Association).The APA general format is discussed at length in this chapter. In- text referencing is given in detailed accounts. The process of citing book authors using the APA system up to eight authors is given. The reverencing of journal articles in APA citations is discusses at length. Journal articles should have the Journal name in italics, plus the volume number of the journal. The chapter also talks about writing research proposals. The general overview of writing research proposals like writing the introduction, the literature review, research methodology, research objective, aims, research questions and data analysis is given. The chapter also talks about the two types of presentations. These are poster presentations and oral presentations.

Chapter nine is the beginning of the second part of the book. The other half of the book is entitled "The nuts and Bolts of survey research". It deals with answering research questions with surveys. The first topic it tackles is how to create a survey that is able to answer psychological questions. It moves on to talk about the types of survey response scales used in psychological research. These include but are not limited to: simple qualitative, extent survey scales, frequency survey scale, developmental survey scale, performance scales and comparison scales. The chapter also talks about validating scores from a survey. The chapter ends with checking the reliability of responses gotten from surveys.

Chapter ten talks about the nuts and bolts of correlational studies. It highlights the research questions that are frequently asked in correlational studies. The chapter progresses to talk about correlational study examples. In these correlational studies, the book talks briefly about descriptive studies and predictive studies. Descriptive studies talk about the data that is available just describing events and happenings. Predictive studies predict the outcome of a course of action. The common pitfalls of the two methods of study are highlighted.

Chapter eleven talks about the nuts and bolts of experiments. It discusses on the causation through manipulation and control. Within subjects experiments are also discussed at length. In within -subject experiments, social, biological, cognitive, and developmental examples are given. The factorial design in correlation studies is also talked about.

Chapter twelve is about the nuts, and bolts quasi experiments. This chapter talks about two types of quasi experiments. These are the pretest and the posttest designs. Quasi experiments are imitative experiments done to test the visibility of an intended social experiment.

Chapter 13 talks about other specialized research designs. The specialized  designs like double pretest design, on- equivalent dependent variable design, factorial design, proxy pre-test design, regression discontinuity design, regression point displacement design, Solomon four group design and switching replications design.

Chapter fourteen talks about the statistical methods used in psychological research. The methods talked about are Mann Whitney U method, regression analysis, time series, and student t test method and spearman correlation coefficient. The book ends on chapter fourteen. It is a remarkably student friendly book. It uses standard language.

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