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Puberty is the changes physical change that is experienced physically in order to facilitate the dynamic transition of a child to an adult. The whole process is brought about by hormone alerted to gonads from the brain. Gonads release diverse hormones and growth is stimulated in such organs as blood, skin, breasts, bones, muscle, hair, and system of reproduction. Growth proceeds in the initial stages of puberty and ceases once puberty is completed (Berenberg & Macy, 1975). Transition in shape, size, and composition is experienced in structures of the body and the system as a whole. The outstanding difference between puberty in both girls and boys is the age, which it commences. Girls start getting mature four years after the initial transitions of puberty shows up. Boys move slowly but growth continues even after changes in puberty can still be seen (McCoy et al 1999). Testerone is the major hormone for men, which facilitate all changes in them. Boys are generally shorter than girls when they start experiencing puberty changes but this is different on adult men who are taller than their women counterpart. Estrogen is a hormone, which drives a woman puberty stage (Movsessian, 2005).
As we encounter transition from kids to youthful adults, we do not just develop upwards. The changes experienced are in diverse ways. Body parts grow differently for both girls and boys. All are willing to experience these changes to feel like adults. The most notable and important has to do with reproductive system maturity; one is capable of giving birth. For both it is only after puberty that one can be a parent (Kipke, 1999). The reproduction system cannot produce cells for sex the ovum or the sperm. On reaching puberty, hormones influence the body to start manufacturing cells for sex and eventually prepare the entire body for reproducing. With the body experiencing transition, feelings inside are equally undergoing transition. As the body is straining to accept puberty, we feel mixed up and tired. At the same time, we can also feel great about the changes in our body (Movsessian, 2005).
The initial trace that puberty has begun is tremendous growth of legs and arms and height. This is mainly at the age of 12-13 for boys and 11 for girls. This results to clothes being small and unfitting. Pain is also experienced as bones increases at each end as a sign that nerves are developing. This can be minimized through massaging the areas, which are painful. Developing puberty gives our cells a hard time and they fast use the food we consume. This result to the body demanding for more time to rest and one finds he or she is extending sleeping period. When growth is taking place during sleep, one can get up feeling short of energy and something sweet can be of great aid (McCoy et al 1999).
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Limbs grow at diverse rate per individual. Some organs might grow at a high rate than the rest. One can appear odd when arms develop quickly than our legs but this is brought to an end within no time. Some bones on the face can undergo transition and this brings an adult face. Puberty can best be defined as the change, which makes our body capable of reproducing. The coming of this important stage changes from individual to individual (Ashby, 2005). Development is continuous even after puberty but from that, almost everybody is fertile and a baby can be made.
The transition from a kid to somebody capable of making a baby is a milestone towards being a grown up. Some communities even celebrate for that kind of a thing. The whole fraternity sees one as a woman and a man. In most cases however, one is still a child since he or she has not reached 18 years (Freud, 2010). Apart from our relation with others, we have to look after ourselves very carefully. Being in a position where one can give birth requires being vigilant on how we associate with others sexually. Our hair grows during this period and one can smell sweaty which demands being clean always. Researchers have established early age at the start of puberty. Their arguments have been drawn from comparison of some years. At the age of nine, a child born of an American and African is by almost 50% experience puberty at nine and 13% of girls who are white of the similar age. In 2006, research done in Denmark found puberty characterized by breast growth, commenced at age of 10 years after a similar research back in the 90s. This can be linked to someone being obese or consumption of genetic foods that exposes young women to a risk (Movsessian, 2005).
Among the least understood issues affecting development of puberty are psychological and social. When compared to others such as eating habits and health issues social affects a small portion changing time with a few weeks rather than months. How this can be remedied is yet to be known although a number of physiological issues have been mentioned basing on some animal study. The most vital part of a kid is the people close and most influence on social study has looked at issues of the structure of the family and roles in connection to later or earlier women puberty (McCoy et al 1999).
Changes in young women
Girls experience many changes in their bodies than young men. This is because they do a lot of work while creating babies. Their body is in such a way that they can hold a fetus, milk the baby, create the ovum while young men only are required to manufacture and lodge sperms. The development of breasts is usually the onset of puberty. Buds behind the nipples can be seen growing to reproduce glands, which are large to produce milk for a baby who is newly born. They also make one feel proud, like a woman, and can bring a feeling of being nervous due to their appearance. The two breasts on both sides can grow at diverse rate but the difference cannot be visible by the time full growth is done.
Puberty initiates growth of hair in other places on our body. The hair appears rough and tough than earlier experienced. Pubic hair develops around the canal passage and in the armpits. The hair then spreads to the thighs and sometimes up the abdomen. Small fractions of the girls have their hair appearing before breast start developing (Movsessian, 2005). The stage is known as puberties. One of the worst experiences for young women is the onset of periods; the removal of uterus lining which comes as blood oozing from the vagina. This comes after four-week period where the lining comes with blood and an ovum matures and moves down into the uterus. The ovum always moves with the blood from the lining of the uterus when unfertilized (Ashby, 2005).
Periods are not often regular in the first and second year. Most women who experiences irregular periods continue like that a few years after the first period and are exposed to a great peril of reduced fertility. Menstrual periods commence at age between 13 and 14 but most women experience later or earlier than expected. A period can stay for about four to five days and can be longer or shorter than this (Hibbert, 2005). They however vary from one woman to the next and can be a little painful or not at all. Painkillers can be used to ease cramps in the stomach. Most women are not disturbed by cramps and occasionally opt to put things under control.
The surface of vagina undergoes changes and becomes big and pink which is dull in color. White substances are released as the ovaries and uterus grows bigger. Due to the increasing levels of estrogen, hips, as well as part of pelvic girdle increase allowing a wider canal for birth. The lipids go up to high percentage than in young men mostly in such areas as buttocks, thighs, hips and breast. The distribution of fats alongside difference in sex adds to women body shape when puberty is almost ending. Research has shown that girls at ten years have more fats compared to boys by 7% (Ashby, 2005).
As a pulse of luteinizing hormones escalates, little amount of progesterone and testosterone emanates from cells of the ovaries. A lot of testosterone approaches cells of granulosa. Little increments of follicle stimulating hormone facilitates rising of aromatase activity of cells of granulosa which transforms most of testosterone into estradiol for releases into the cycle. Increasing rates of estradiol removes estrogenic characteristic of women puberty. Growth starts, continuation of bone development, breast development, rising levels of fats, enlargement of uterus, thickness improvement of endometrium and mucosa of vagina and pelvis on the lower side widening (McCoy et al 1999). With the rates of estradiol going up, a stage of being mature is arrived when positive feedback is receive from hypothalamic. With positive feedback having been experienced, that is the onset of maturity sexually as hormones to facilitate ovulation in process. Hormone growth rises as puberty proceeds and eventually growth is finished and height of an adult is attained (Kipke, 1999
Changes in young men
Puberty brings seen changes to boys although not seen clearly. When testicles begin to produce sperms sexual maturity is said to have been arrived at. The testicles can be seen below the body in the scrotal bag. Being placed away from their body aids in regulating temperatures as they are required to be cool than temperatures of the body to manufacture sperm in the right way. The size of the penis increases to adult size (Ashby, 2005). The required size of the testicles is 17-20 cc in a normal setting. Testes facilitate production of sperms and hormones. Testerone being one of them facilitates changes experienced in the puberty process. Sperms are normally seen in urine of most young men a year after transition in puberty and as usual earlier. As seen fertility is experienced at age of 13 in boys but will only be fertile at the age bracket of 15-17 years.
When genitalia begin to grow pubic hair appears. The hair is seen on the abdomen. Hairs, which appear initially, are called stage 2. The third stage approaches between six and twelve months where there are too many hairs. When they get to the fourth stage, they are just so many and eventually to thighs on reaching the fifth stage. After the pubic hair, hair is seen a few months after in the armpits, upper side of the lip, sides of the face and beard area. This arrangement may vary in most individuals. As time goes by, hair becomes dense on such places as legs, chest, and arms (Berenberg & Macy, 1975). Adult men tend to have many hairs but this is determined in most cases by race among other factors. Hair on the face is seen late in adolescence but in some cases, this may not happen until later on. The hairs on the face get darker and rough between 2-5 years upon completion of puberty. A number of men develop no hair ten years upon completion of puberty. Hair on the chest may only be seen years after puberty or no hair altogether (Freud, 2010).
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Androgens influence the voice box in both boys and girls. This is to greater extent seen in young men causing their vocals to go down and deep sometimes but odd within a night. The larynx in boys and girls appear small before puberty. As usual, change in voice is experienced by unpreparedness of vocals in initial stages of voices, which are not trained. The change of voice in most men is during the climax of puberty. Deepening of voice in adult voice is attained at age of 16 but comes earlier before the hairs grow on the face (Hibbert, 2005).
The muscle strength is double in most adult men and heavy bones when puberty is almost ending. Some bones do not grow being proportionate and this brings strange differences in men and women. Muscles establish themselves later in puberty and this can proceed even after one becomes an adult. On reaching climax of the puberty stage, the rate at which muscle grows is reached. Generally, young men tissues of the breast as well as their nipples develop and in some cases in one which is not permanent situation (Ashby, 2005).
As androgen level goes up, it results to change in composition. Acne is uncontrollable and only ends puberty. This is not common in grownups. Some often apply lotions and ointments because it is emotionally hard. Boys experience erections when nervous or in excitement and sometimes it comes on its own. This can bring shame but individuals do not just notice and this can only be brought to an end once somebody concentrates on something else. Wet dreams become very common while one is resting at night. This is semen and normal portion of one growing up (Kipke, 1999
Initial stages of men maturation are almost the same as the initial stages of women puberty though it comes a year or two later. Luteinizing hormones influence cells from testes to allow testosterone and levels of blood to rise. During puberty, levels of testosterone are on the rise during night compared during the day (Freud, 2010). The frequency and influence of gonadotropin rating seems to be not required for continuation of men than women puberty. Overall, a great portion of testosterone in mature boys is changed to estradiol. This influences the development rate, bone matures, and puberty ends just like in females. Estradiol also influences development of the tissues of breast in a wide range of them. For most young men, hormones changes during the teenage stages. At this stage, the testosterone rates go up, and many effects are channeled through receptors of androgen by conversion (Berenberg & Macy, 1975).
Puberty that comes early or later in young men can influence chemicals that are in close connection to being antisocial; this is according to study whose findings have touched on people with young men who appears arrogant and aggressive. Aggressiveness can start early in elementary age and may be thought as weak control of impulse, hardships in family or a common weakness (Ashby, 2005). Alpha amylase in lower levels, researchers observed is to blame for some arrogant young men who underwent early puberty and cortical in higher rates is to blame for them being not social. The replica of the same is different in young women. This appears as the first research that indicates timing of transformation from childhood to a young adult. It is important for parents as well as health people to be aware that puberty is very stressful both in terms of behavior and biology on the children. This remains a mystery because it has been found that it only happens to boys and not girls. Boys are said to secrete testosterone in large amount and given that it is referred to as hormone of stress leads to all this. Going by how children behaves, the study was carried out on boys and girls within the age bracket of eight to thirteen years to test on social behavior, aggressive behavior, breaking of rules, being defiant and attention problems among others (Kipke, 1999. Samples of saliva were also taken before and after a hectic test in the laboratory while assistants established the level of puberty of each kid.
Analyses of the enzymes from the saliva and timing of puberty and signs of not being social indicate that in average young men who are not social experience late start of puberty and increased levels of cortisol. In general, boys who experienced puberty early in life and had minimized levels of enzymes from saliva categorically indicated more problems closely linked to breaking of rules and a disorder in their behavior (Freud, 2010). The boys appeared more arrogant compared to those who experienced puberty after them. This is a research of its kind to indicate how puberty depending on when experienced shows differences in kids (Price, 2006).
In conclusion, during puberty emotional changes are not important such as changes seen physically. Parents are seen looking out for emotional changes during puberty but are not aware that physical changes appear early. Changes that come emotionally and feelings of puberty are a portion of it but do not necessarily come at initial stages or towards the end. Transformations that parents identify are a part of puberty. Kids are fitting and understand themselves at this time. This can be somehow problematic and this call for parents being keen on their children developing emotionally, physically and mentally and incase of difficulties immediately consult an expert (Berenberg & Macy, 1975).