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Teenage pregnancy can be described as a pregnancy of a young woman who is aged between 13-17 years of age. At this age the body of the woman starts to undergo several changes and one of the changes is the capability to reproduce and as a consequence of indulging in irresponsible sexual behavior with limited knowledge of their reproductive systems, the girls have a high possibility of becoming expectant. This is a very risky condition since the girls are still in school and with limited income they receive limited or no pre-natal care thus exposing the mother and the unborn child to various complications. It is well known expectant teenagers are most likely to discontinue their education at this early age hence shaping a life of hardship (Wheeler, 2004).

The teenage mothers fall in a situation which they cannot solve; first they require pre-natal care of which is not available simply because they are young teens who cannot afford the costs of the care. This is an issue that needs a lot of concern from the fact that the teenage expectant girls require some counseling before they are incorporated back to the society, this is from the fact that we consider this issue as an issue which affects both an individual and the society in addition to the community at large (Arthur, 1996).

There exist several risks which are associated to the mother as well as the unborn child. First the mother will discontinue her education since she is immediately a young mother and this will be a frustration to the parents of the young mother for they foresee a double responsibility of taking care of the child and the mother of the child. Teenage pregnancy becomes both a frustration as well as a failure in the society. The teens are pregnant are at a greater risk of developing diseases like high blood pressure and anemia, this is due from the fact that the babies are bound to be born prematurely (Holgate & Evans, 2006).

Young women who are not capable of completing the first years of their education eventually become a burden to their parents since they discontinue their education and eventually become disadvantaged in the society as this field is becoming very competitive in today's labor market. There is an increased need of skilled labor and that is the reason why the impregnated girls need to go back to school in an effort to make their future colorful (Wheeler, 2004).


The society discriminates pregnant girls from the fact that they are considered to be irresponsible in the society. Unskilled bothers in the society who are not supported by their parents eventually result to poor educational results as well as social ability with other members of the society recent statistics have proven that there is an increasing number of young girls who become pregnant before maturity in addition there is the fact that most of the teenage pregnancies are terminated before identification through abortion. It is important to question whether the women who choose to abort have the desired ethics in the society; a question that needs policy makers to debate about (Arthur, 1996).

Lack of prior knowledge of the reproductive systems leads to pregnancy and once a teenager is pregnant abortion becomes the next solution. Recent research has suggested that pregnant young girls with success in school are most likely to re-continue their education compared to those who originate from poor families. Poverty is one issue that contributes to teenage pregnancy since teens from rich families are bound to access some sexual education before they venture into the society and thus they can protect themselves. Low income earners who live in high situations are most likely to be abused since the employers of the girls misuse the opportunities and abuse them as they consider them to originate from poor families (Holgate & Evans, 2006).

Teen pregnancy has become one of the most contentious issue in the world since it is killing potentials of very productive young women. Several strategies have been implemented in an effort to educate the youth about sexual education in addition to birth control. Recent research has proven that the number of teen pregnancy cases is globally falling in the developed and industrial countries. In the course of 2000, statistics have indicated that in the united sates alone there were 821,810 cases of teenage pregnancies and this accounts for 84 pregnancies for every 1, 000 people. During the same year, Canada reported teen pregnancies of 38, 600 and this were 38 pregnancies per every 1,000 people (Holgate & Evans, 2006).

Several other industrialized countries like Sweden and France have lower teen pregnancies than Canada in comparison to other countries and this is the reason why the United States has been considered to have a big problem when it comes to dealing with teenage pregnancy. The higher aged group of the youth in the United States has the highest cases of teenage pregnancy and it is viewed to be the major cause of several problems. The teen mothers have a low probability of completing their college or high school education and as a consequence there is sufficient evidence that more than 80% of the unwed mothers are as a result of teenage pregnancy (Harris, 2007).

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Recent research has proven that a child who has been born from a teenage mother is very disadvantaged in the society since the newborns from teenage pregnancies are most likely to be born with less weight than the standard weights which have been set by physicians. As they grow, they are likely to perform poorly in schools since they lack fatherly love and they have a high chance of undergoing abuse and neglect. It has been analyzed that most prisoners who have violated state laws have a background which is associated to teenage pregnancy and additionally daughters from single mothers have a higher risk of becoming teenage pregnancy victims (Wheeler, 2004).

Teenagers who have a positive relationship with their parents are not likely to get pregnant at an early age. Sufficient communication between parents and their children plays a fundamental role in avoiding teenage pregnancy since they get enough sexual education as they grow and so they are aware of the consequences of getting involved in irresponsible sexual activities. Sexual education is vital to decision making of the youth. Arming the teens with the necessary information about their sexual activities is imperative to healthy sexual relationships. Abstinence and the use of contraceptives are some of the important issues that have to taught to the youth so as they can choose an option between the two but the most important virtue is abstinence and in an event that it cannot be avoided then the use of contraceptives is the next option in an effort to avoid the teenage pregnancies (Holgate & Evans, 2006).

In the United States, the teenage births increased in 2007 and this was the second year in a row. These increases are subsequent from a decline between the year 1991 and 2005 as currently the teenage births are very high in the United States compared to other developing countries and hence this has raised some concern from policy makers since the mother and the baby face challenging situations related to their health as well as development of their future careers as the pregnancy is a big obstacle to exploitation of current opportunities. Some of the teens are forced to change their lifestyles in an effort to improving the probability of siring an healthy baby, the abuse of drugs, smoking, and the use of alcohol are the most common scapegoats that the teens get indulged in and this increases the chances of giving birth to a baby who has a low birth weight (Harris, 2007).

Pregnant teens are more likely to smoke than pregnant women who are 25 years and above. During the year 2004, it was observed that 17% of the women who were smoking were teens aged between 15-17 years of age compared to the women aged between 25 to 34 who attracted a percentage of 10. Generally, women who smoke during their gestation period have an increased chance of being affected by premature births, low birth weights, in addition to developing Sudden Infant death Syndrome (SIDS). There is a high probability that the pregnant teens will not receive sufficient prenatal care. Between the year 2000 and 2002, an average of 7.1% of teenage mothers aged below 17 years were subjected to prenatal care in comparison to 3.7% of the other ages (Harris, 2007).

A teenage mother is more likely to develop pregnancy complications compared to other ages. Some of the dominant complications include:

Out of the 19 million cases of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs) which are reported each year it has been observed that more that 9 million are teens aged between 15-17 and the most common STIs include: Chlamydia which is an infectious infection which can result to sterility, pneumonia, and eye infections to the new born, Syphilis is another STI which can lead to blindness, maternal and infant death, HIV/AIDS is the most dangerous of all and treatment during pregnancy is a recommended practice since it can reduce the chances of infection between the mother and the unborn child and thus since teenage mother receive limited or no prenatal care; they increase the chances of mother-child infection (Gillham, 1997).

Statistics have proven that babies from teenage mothers are more likely to die within their first year of life compared to the babies from mature mothers who strongly survive their first years; this risk is indirectly proportional to the age of the mother since teens below the age of 15 years are the most affected. In 2005, out of every 1,000 babies that were born, 16.4 of the teenage mothers under the age 15 died in comparison to 6.8 per every 1,000 babies from women from the other ages. Most teen mothers are affected by the issue of low birth rate since most of their babies are born underweight. The more a baby is born prematurely the more likely that it is underweight. A study that was conducted during the year 2006, 10% of the babies who were born by teenage mothers under the age of 15 had low-birth weights and the risk increases as the age of the teenage mothers goes down (Holgate & Evans, 2006).

The consequence originates from the fact that the babies who are prematurely born lack fully developed organs and body systems and this eventually leads to breathing complications like distress syndrome, bleeding in the brain, loss of vision and other complicated intestinal problems. Life becomes very difficult for the teenage mother and her child and it has been observed that less than 40% of the teenagers who get pregnant before the age of 18 graduate from their colleges compared to 75% of the teenage counterparts who avoided teenage pregnancy until ages of 20 and above (Harris, 2007).

After the education of the mother has been discontinued, she lacks the necessary professional skills thus complicating the process of securing a permanent job and thus she becomes entirely dependent on family or the public for the necessary assistance. The teen mothers are more likely to eventually lead a poor life than the women who delay their child bearing periods. Approximately more than 64% of the children who are born from unmarried teenage mothers eventually result to impoverishing in poverty in comparison to 7% of the children born by mothers who are 20 years and above. A child born by a teenage mother is 50% more likely to repeat grades in school or perform poorly in addition to dropping out of the school prematurely (Holgate & Evans, 2006).

Due to the detrimental consequences which have been associated with teenage pregnancy, it is very important that teens delay their childbearing and if a teenager becomes pregnant then she should consume a healthy balanced diet in an effort to nourish herself and further she should avoid alcohol and smoking as well as other drugs. It is recommendable that pregnant teens take multivitamins which contain folic acid each day so as to reduce the chances of giving birth to a baby who is underweight (Harris, 2007).

Also the issue of divorce, explicit entertainment adverts as well as pornography should be discouraged as they increase the probability of teenage motherhood. Some experts have proposed that abstinence is the best strategy to be implemented so as to avoid teenage pregnancies but others have concluded that the problem can only be controlled by sex education through the use of pregnancy prevention contraceptives since the youth cannot completely abstain. The use of condoms is the most recommended method since it is effective and easy to use in addition to the fact that it is affordable to the youth. The increased cases of sexually transmitted diseases is a sufficient evidence which proves that the youth rarely implement pregnancy control measures and hence the consequence of teenage pregnancies and premature births. The church, the school, the family and the society at large should combine efforts and educate the youth about responsible sex and abstinence so as to avoid the above discussed complications (Gillham, 1997).

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