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Bigwood, S., & Crowe, M. (2008). 'It's part of the job, but it spoils the job': A phenomenological study of physical restraint. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing , 17, 215-222.
The article has its purpose to understand experiences nurses gain as a result of physical restraints. Conflict and fear are stated to be bad sides when touching upon physical restraints. Thus, to minimize the excessive use of physical restraints would lessen suchlike causation. The research is designed in order to show aspects of the problem analyzed in the literature review with further methodology of Van Manen to describe phenomenology regarding the issue. The population consisted of 7 nurses partaking in interviews. Advantage of the research is the identification of clients' unpredicted behaviors to cause frustration among nurses. The limitation is that suchlike intervention in order to be feasible should have more participants. The outcome is that nurses are likely to gain physical excess in taking care of patients.
Choi, E., & Song, M. (2003). Physical restraint use in a Korean ICU. Journal of Clinical Nursing , 12, 651-659.
This study pays close attention to the factors regarding times of use and removal of restraints. The research puts forward whether or not an excessive use of physical restraints possible for the same patients within Intensive Care Unit. The methodology includes interviewing 23 patients along with 29 nurses taking care of them. The article is well researched concerning the excessive use of physical restraints, but it needs more justifications compared to the general practice in Asia. The outcomes have shown that the bilateral wrist restraint is commonplace for nurses. Hence, they need more care themselves in terms of physical restraints.
Hamers, J. P., Gulpers, M. J., & Strik, W. (2004). Use of physical restraints with cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Journal of Advanced Nursing , 45 (3), 246-251.
The study researches the extent of physical restraint use for cognitively impaired home clients with the purpose of to designate the links between clients' personal characteristics and physical restraints applied to them. Evident in two Dutch hospitals, the research is based on questioning nurses applied to patients with the mean age of 81 years. The whole design of the study showed the necessity to re-evaluate the use of physical restraints. However, it lacks objective data on male and female correspondence in this case. The results showed that an excessive use of restraints for patients was well regarded to better mobility and self-care. It is quite significant to take it for the world's general practice of nursing.
Hantikainen, V. (1998). PHYSICAL RESTRAINT: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY IN SWISS NURSING HOMES. Nursing Ethics , 5 (4), 330-346.
The study is designed so as to define the significance of physical restraints for patients and nurses in order to show their prevalence in primary care. It is maintained through questionnaires for nurses and auxiliary staff. The outcomes of the research have shown that physical restraints are widely used among Swiss hospitals. Nonetheless, the gist of physical restraints and its excessive use was not well comprehended by the nursing staff. The results, however, outlined that only 29% of respondents feel flexible due to the normal use of physical restraints. Thus, the study is of great concern for the general evaluation of physical restraints.
Huang, H.-T., Chuang, Y.-H., & Chiang, K.-F. (2009). Nurses' Physical Restraint Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices: The Effectiveness of an In-Service Education Program. Journal of Nursing Research , 17 (4), 241-249.
The research is dedicated toward nurturing conception of the use of physical restraints among nurses in order to protect patients from probable excesses in physical strains. Solutions are found through in-service education of the nursing staff. The methodology presupposes education program for 59 and 70 nurses divided into intervention and control groups respectively. The research showed improvements in participant attitudes as of physical restraints among nurses. However, it was demonstrated in the short-term perspective. The results provide definite benefits of in-service education. Thus, it is a great opportunity to follow by the rest of nurses worldwide.
Janelli, L. M., Stamps, D., & Delles, L. (2006). Physical Restraint Use: A Nursing Perspective. MEDSURG Nursing , 15 (3), 163-167.
Restrictive standards of care and cases of injury impacted less attention to physical restraints. The article discusses this topic through interviewing 216 nurses. It falls into suggesting re-education of the nursing staff as the forte to omit excessive physical restraints. The strength of the article is in its direct appeal to ethical issues in the use of physical restraints. However, there are numerous impediments toward making it clear for every single nurse. Nevertheless, the outcomes outlined that legal and ethical implications should be well regarded to the nursing staff. It makes more emphasis on reducing excessive use of physical restraints by nurses.
Knox, J. (2007). Reducing physical restraint use in residential aged care: implementation of an evidence-based approach to improve practice. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare , 5, 102-107.
The article lays emphasis on physical restraints as a care strategy. The methodology is based upon using the best practices to make improvements in clinical care through audit and feedback. The amount of 174 residents was used to attain the research findings. The advantage of the study goes in improvements for auditing compliance with the support of evidence-based criteria. Nonetheless, it has a vague representation of data in their wholeness. The outcomes showed the necessity in educational background for eliminating any excess in the use of physical restraints. It serves an additional requirement for contemporary nurses.
Liukkonen, A., & Laitmen, P. (1994). Reasons for uses of physical restraint and alternatives to them in geriatric nursing: a questionnaire study among nursing staff. Joumal of Advanced Nurstng , 19, 1082-1087.
The study grabs special attention to working with patients with disruptive behaviors in order to have a right approach in applying physical restraints. Data were collected among 287 nurses (the staff). The advantages of the research are that it gives reasons for the use of physical restraints showed a decrease in physical and cognitive activity for demented clients. The limitation is that not all alternatives are included. It means a new challenge is likely to spring up before nurses.
Meyer, G., Kopke, S., Haastert, B., & hlhauser, I. M. (2008). Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. Journal of Clinical Nursing , 18, 981-990.
The research is aimed at investigating the use of physical restraints along with psychoactive medications in terms of their influence on nursing homes. The overall design points out cross-sectional study in its relation to prospective cohort study. Observation of three different occasions among old persons in hospital in order to further state the mutual relation between physical restraint and psychoactive drugs was the basic method. However, this link is less probable without constant care on the part of a nurse. To decrease physical restraint program means to gain more guarantees.
Minnick, A. F., Fogg, L., Mion, L. C., Catrambone, C., & Johnson, M. E. (2007). Resource Clusters and Variation in Physical Restraint Use. JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP , 39 (4), 363-370.
Design of this study is well descriptive outlining inter- and intrainstitutional approaches in the work of nurses. The population used includes 137 nurses from both acute and intensive care units from 40 US hospitals taken randomly. This is the main advantage of the research. On the other hand, it is less argumentative in terms of the ICU and non-ICY clusters. That is, it needs more facts for ICU's appliance in reducing excessive use of physical restraints. The results point out that measurement of resources between units is the fad of the effective healthcare. In turn it corresponds to practicing first of all.
Ralphs-Thibodeau, S., Knoefel, F., Benjamin, K., Leclerc, A., Pisterman, S., Sohmer, J., et al. (2006, 1st Quarter). Patient Choice: An Influencing Factor on Policy-Related Research to Decrease Bedrail Use as Physical Restraint. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing , 31-39.
The study is represented with the help of mixed methods concerning the use of bedrails as restraint. It is based on a multidisciplinary approach. The methodology prescribes the use of the patients participating in both study and control groups so that to provide special conditions and obtain patients' opinions. It is good for its participants (voluntarily participating) and distinct measurements (data collection). However, it would be even better if taking patients of different ages into consideration. Nonetheless, the findings have shown the focal use of rails-down approach in lessening excessive use of physical restraints.
Saarnio, R., Isola, A., & Laukkala, H. (2008). The use of physical restraint in institutional care of older people in Finland: nurses' individual, communal and alternative modes of action. Journal of Clinical Nursing , 18, 132-140.
This is the research based on a quantitative survey which puts forward data given from various nurses working in different units (healthcare centers, private and municipal homes) in Finland. The study touches upon the purpose of mapping the use of physical restraints for old people living in the country. However, its main limitation is that education is still in focus to improve the use of physical restraints. The outcomes have shown that experience of nurses matters much. This is why it is vital for nurses with the longest experience to counsel novices in the peculiarities of the physical restraint use.
Sequeira, H., & Halstead, S. (2004). The psychological effects on nursing staff of administering physical restraint in a secure psychiatric hospital: 'When I go home, it's then that I think about it'. The British Journal of Forensic Practice , 6 (1), 3-15.
The study is based mainly on the qualitative approach. Data were collected based on ethical and emotional reactions by the nursing staff dividing them into positive and negative. Such responses were also collected among patients applied to physical restraints. The study outlines the need for no excessive use of physical restraints. On the other side, it develops not enough links between psychological and physiological dimensions in measuring nurses' stance of being hardened. The findings provide a scope of responses on that emotions among nurses are evident automatically when using physical restraints. It makes some points in clinical practice to be further explored.
Smith, M. L., & Bowman, K. M. (2009). The Restraint Spiral: Emergent Themes in the Perceptions of the Physical Restraint of Juveniles. Child Welfare , 88 (3), 57-83.
The design of the study relies on the qualitative research. It is based on the use of physical restraint among juvenile. It is vital to admit that any excessive use of physical restraints may provoke juveniles' negative reaction. Thus, the research is good for its innovative exemplification of how adult-juvenile approach works in terms of physical restraints application. The disadvantage of the research is that it has no cross-sectional approaches to better justify the overall issue. The main findings have outlined that practicing behavioral implications is positively explored. Thus, it helps nurses get on swimmingly with this particular category of patients.
Yamamoto, M., Izumi, K., & Usui, K. (2006). Dilemmas facing Japanese nurses regarding the physical restraint of elderly patients. Japan Journal of Nursing Science , 3, 43-50.
The study is aimed to work out the "dilemma" of using physical restraints for old patients. Thus, it speculates on the practicality of excessive use of physical restraints. Quantitative design presupposes 1477 nurses from different hospitals at different wards. The strength is in the scope of participants. It gave more feasibility to provide further findings. However, more variables should be used to find out more arguments. Insofar, the results have demonstrated that "execution of treatment and security" should have more attention on the part of the nursing unit. Finding out solutions for this issue makes no dilemma evident at all.