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The community-based programs, which are designed by the police, had been implemented in San Diego due to their effectiveness in combating Juvenile delinquency. The police force has an obligation to ensure maximum protection to the citizens and deter possible citizen involvement in the criminal activities. These programs enable the citizens to be educated on personal protection against criminal activities through obedience to the law.
In San Diego, these efforts by the police are faced with several challenges that need the commitment of the community and trust amongst the communal parties. The office of Juvenile justice and delinquency prevention has contacted several research studies in California, San Diego County and has established that, the a few youths commit serious crimes that normally accounts for disproportionate levels of juvenile crime, most of these studies have resulted into strategies that help to prevent and control serious violent juvenile offences.
Exposing the youths to risk factors through various social agents such as families, schools and peer groups may cause them to become serious juvenile offenders. Interventions that involve family, school and community can effectively prevent future social problems. To maximize factors that prevent Juvenile delinquency and minimize factors that accelerate these vices it has been discovered that school and community based interventions are potential solutions. This essay analyses two programs in California, San Diego that prevents juvenile delinquency prevalence, these includes Crime stopper programs and Media intervention programs.
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Crime Stopper programs
This program integrates the mechanisms of crime detection and preventions that involve the community and police interventions. It involves citizen mobilization, situational prevention, policing strategies and policy change intervention, these mechanisms aim at stopping juvenile delinquency by making it hard to commit the crime and easier to reach the offender.
Citizen mobilization deters juvenile offenders by addressing the potential risk factors and offering the necessary protective measures. This is effected through neighborhood watch and citizen patrols. Neighborhood watch assumes that the residents can easily monitor individuals and suspicious activities within the surroundings. The Guardian Angels is the most widely known community mobilization program in San Diego, CA. It makes use of non-law enforcement citizens to monitor the neighboring residential areas. This group is composed of racially diverse members who are armed but patrols on foot. The Guardian angel aim is to prevent minor crimes that cause personal injury or robbery with violence. In their evaluation (Pennell et al., 1989) made a comparison between two areas in San Diego, CA. where Guardian angel controlled one area, However the findings indicated that the crime rates did not differ by a large margin in the two areas.
Situational prevention in its attempt to reduce crimes it employs police agents and communal efforts .According to (Clarke, 1995: Farrington, 1995).the situational prevention mechanisms uses various strategies that have proved its effectiveness. One such strategy is the use of steering locks on motor vehicles that physically reduces the possibility for a theft action to occur; Use of computerized electronic technology like personal identification numbers to restrict entrance into premises is another mechanism for situational prevention. The most effective mechanism in situational prevention is the deterrence of the offences by channeling youth's behaviour in socially acceptable manners as seen in the stadiums where rival soccer fans are separated by different enclosures. On explaining, this (Shearing and Stenning, 1984) highlights on how to control crowds in amusement parks through use of pavement markings, physical barriers and vocal directions.
In addition to this, situational prevention can be used where individual entrance and exit in buildings is screened or tracked by use of highly sophisticated programs. Surveillance techniques used in retail shops where merchandise tagging is engaged to prevent shoplifting and surveillance by security personnel is included here.
Lastly, situational prevention helps to stop crimes by making the potential crime targets inaccessible like in the case of locked safes. Policing strategies in San Diego, CA, where police departments address issue related crime stopping helps to prevent Juvenile delinquency. The issues raised concerns crime tolerance, level of community organization, and neighborhood attachment. In San Diego, CA. Field interrogation is used by the police and has highly proved to reduce crime rates, under this technique, the police personnel tracks down a suspect based on the persons character, the suspect is questioned on the perceived activities, the individual is then searched together with the personal effects in possession. (Skolnick and Bayley, 1988) Termed this technique as unconstitutional since it is not ease to identify the root cause for interrogation. However (Boydstun, 2006) evaluation in San Diego, CA, showed that this strategy potentially prevented crime when respectfully carried out. The evaluation also indicated an increase in crime after the police had stopped field. Interrogations.
Policy change interventions where communal policies have been changed concerning sale and use of drugs (mainly alcohol, cigarettes and bhang) and firearms is another form of crime stoppage. This strategy aims at preventing the possibility of occurrence of anti-social acts by juveniles. In San Diego, CA. there has been several changes in policies that govern the presence and legal usage of drugs, these policies of controlling drugs such as alcohol are manipulated through taxes and licenses. Firearms are known to be the fuelling agents for Juvenile crimes in San Diego, CA, a change in policy to limit the availability and use of gadgets such as Handguns results in reduced cases of robberies with violence, Burglary and Homicide.
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Media Campaign Programs in San Diego, CA.
The Media campaigns program has played an important role in the prevention of Juvenile crime related activities in San Diego, CA. This is a community based prevention strategy that has collaborated up with other state strategies to come up with the partnership foe America free campaign, which aims at creating national wide awareness against drugs. The role of this campaign is to enlighten the residents on the awareness of the causes of juvenile crime and influence the public's attitude. Media campaigns against drugs have created awareness about drugs such as Marijuana and cocaine that are mostly abused by youths.
Media campaigns have been employed in the prevention and reduction of alcohol usage and smoking amongst the youth .This strategy mainly targets Juvenile delinquency. The research evaluations that have been carried out in San Diego have shown positive correlation between media campaigns and juvenile delinquency.
These two crime prevention programs are the most effective in San Diego, CA. Crime Stoppers and Mass Media Campaigns Programs are all community-based resolutions. They all experience similar challenges that involve communal commitment. These are effected through honest and involvement of the community, enhanced co-operation has resulted into strategies that help to prevent and control serious violent juvenile offences. The communal aspects that nature the youths are very vital in combating Juvenile crimes, this aspects include; the school, family and peer group. Interventions that involve family, school and community can effectively prevent future social problems.
To maximize factors that prevent Juvenile delinquency and minimize factors that accelerate these vices it has been discovered that school and community based interventions are potential solutions. This essay analyses two programs in California, San Diego that prevents juvenile delinquency prevalence, these includes Crime stopper programs and Media intervention programs