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Introduction

Basically, constructivism has had an influence on the way I design. The same case applies to all other movements within art history, at different times. For example, Paula Scher and Alexander Rodchenko have had a big influence on the way so many of make our designs. Furthermore, their designs too were influenced by culture, technology as well as the locality of the designs. Seemingly, communication design has persistently been driven and propelled by contemporary available technology as well as scociopolitical aspects. Just like history, design trends cycle within agreement as visual communicators are constantly influenced and informed through the legacy of past inventions and generations. Propelled by the sanguinity of revolution within 1917, the work of Russian constructivists influenced international design beyond 20th century. For example, the distinguished communicative, explosive typography and lively and forceful compositions of Alexander Rodchenko regarding constructivist design can be sensed and is manifested years later, for example in some of Paula Scher's works whereby most of her design work illustrates constructivist design. In this paper, I will be analyzing two historical designers namely, Alexander Rodchenko and Paula Scher who have had a key impact in contemporary designs (Nicholas 40-42).

Paula Scher

Paula Scher is an American designer and also an artist and was born in 1948 in Virginia. Scher attended Tyler School of Art in Pennsylvania where she earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts. She was also awarded a Doctor of Fine Arts Honoris Causa by the Corcoran College of Art and Design in Washington D.C. in around 1970, Paula designed album covers for CBS Records as well as Atlantic Records before she moved into art direction for magazines. Scher was an employee at Time Inc. before she established her design firm, which was known as Koppel & Scher. From 1991, Scher has been the principal at the New York office of Pentagram design consultancy.  

Scher initiated the Arts Directors Club hall of Fame in 1998 and also got the Chrysler Design Award for remarkable innovation in design in 2000. In addition, she received a Gold Medal from American Institute of Graphic Arts in 2001. Some of Scher's work is stored in Museum of Modern Art as well as Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. She has had four album designs which have seen her awarded Grammy Award nominations (Steven 45-50).

As an artist, Scher is well known for the large-scale paintings of maps, covered with dense hand-painted labeling and also information she has designed. She participated in the planning of a new multi-use "urban center" within Mount Vernon Square, near Washington D.C. she started exhibiting her large scale acrylic map paintings at Stendhal Gallegly within 20006 and in 2008 Stendhal gallery conducted Paula's second solo exhibition whose title was "Recent Paintings". Scher's third exhibition with Stendhal gallery was held in January 2010 and featured her Limited Edition Maps Screen print series as well as paintings. Paula married designer Seymour Chwast in 1973 and they divorced in 1978 and they later got married again in 1989 (Paula 10-15).

For more than 30 years, Scher has been very popular in graphic design. Iconic, stylish as well as unabashedly populist, her designs and images have entered American vernacular. Scher started her profession as an art director within 1970's and early 1980's, when her electric approach to topography turned out to be highly significant (Paula 4-6). Within mid 1990s, Scher's landmark uniqueness for Public Theater combined high and low into a completely new symbology for cultural institutions, and her latest architectural partnership have re-imagined the urban landscape as a forceful environment of dimensional graphic design, Scher's graphic identities for both Citibank and Tiffany & Co. have turned out to be case studies for the modern revival of characteristic American brands (Sam 55).

Scher has created identities and developed packaging for numerous customers and this includes, The New York Times Magazine, Perry Ellis, Bloomberg, Target, Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, the New 42nd Street, the New York Botanical Garden, and The Daily Show With Jon Stewart among others (Maya 25).

In 1996, Paula's extensively duplicated identity for the Public Theater won the popular beacon Award for integrated commercial design strategy. Scher serves on the board of The Public Theater, and is a common design contributor to The New York Times, GQ in addition to other publications. 1n 2001, Scher was awarded the highest honor in the profession, the AIGA Medal and this was in acknowledgement of her distinguished accomplishments and contributions to the field. Furthermore, Scher is one of the members of the Alliance Graphique Internationale. Scher's work is characterized and symbolized within the lasting collections of the Museum of Modern Art and the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, New York; the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; the Museum für Gestaltung Zürich; the Denver Art Museum; and the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris (Laurel 16-18).

Scher's work is largely influenced by New York City. She has been located in New York for the most of her profession.  According to Scher, the melting pot of cultures have had a big influence on her work which is appealing since not only is the physicality of New York city having an influence on her work, the human demographic is also influencing her work.  In regard to physicality, the city's tall lender buildings are imitated within her condensed san-serif typography. The compact, elaborate grid structure of the city is illustrated in some of Scher's posters. A good demonstration is the jazz fest poster. Scher develops the analogy of her work being the same as the gridlock as well as traffic jams at a stand still. Some people claimed that it was influenced by constructivist but Scher claims that it was ninety percent influenced by New York City. Without doubt, the constructivist had an influence on her posters but New York City had more influence (Stefan 102-105).

New York is a loud city and this has been reflected in her work. The huge text and colorful designs say NEW YORK. Scher has tied topography in her work but on greater and more physical level. For example, rather than Scher developing a poster and having the text aligned to the architecture and line work of the city; she in fact does it in actual life. Scher makes and designs numerous signs within New York for both store fronts as well as businesses. What makes her designs more attractive is that each and every design is different and she does each according to the type of the business or the area. Finally, all Scher Paula's posters and topography are different and are designed in accordance with the neighborhood (Currey 4).

Alexander Rodchenko

Alexander Rodchenko was a well known Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and in addition a graphic designer who had emerged to be flexible constructivist and also a productivist artist. Rodchenko was born and brought up in St Petersburg by working class parents but later after his father death he settled in Kazan with his family in 1909 where he was married to an artist by the name Varvara Stepanova. He enrolled in Kazan School of Art due to the influence of Nikolai Feshin and also Georgii Medvedev and afterwards he joined Stroganaw Institute in Moscow. The initial abstract drawings that was created by him went through due Suprematism of Kazimir Malevich in 1915.Rodchenko was lucky to be participant in Store exhibition which was prearranged by Vladimir the year that followed.  Vladimir had a determining power in his advancement of his talent as an artist. The government of Bolshevik appreciated Rodchenko effort so he was approved the Director of the Museum Bureau and purchasing fund where he was charged with duty of reformation of art schools and also the museums (Aleksandr 23-25).

Rodchenko was a registered member of Productivist group in 1921 which initial goal was addition 3 of arts in day to day life. He quitted his painting talent to create more time for graphic designs which were done in posters, books and also films. He was sincerely impressed by thoughts and also the application of film-maker Dziga Vertov  so he spent a lot time working on it 1922. Rodchenko appreciated photomontage taken by German Dadaists and he decided to perform his own using the medium but later he employed the established image in 1923 but afterwards in1924 he had performed his own shooting (Stanley 35-38).

The initial photomontage illustration was done on Mayakoysky's poem between this period until 1928 Rodchenko worked together and developed designs and also outline of LEF and also Novy LEF which  were publication that were done Constructivist artists.   He enrolled in October circle that belonged to artists in 1928 afterwards he was barred at the end of the third year due offense of formalism. He also performed other tasks of training the Higher Technical-Artistic Studio between 1920 and 1930   In 1930 he was back in painting. All the way through in  the presentation of his work was very abstract but later in 1930 a great change was expected to due to development of Party guidelines that ruled Artistic practice but Rodchenko had his attention only on sports photography and in addition choreographed actions. He quit photography in 1942 all these years he settled down to put in order photography exhibition that belonged to government until his death in 1956 in Moscow (Aleksandr 20-24).

However after Russian Revolution he was among the first to invent constructivism more so Russian designs. Several photographs that were taken by Rodchenko were used in several occasions in cover page of the journals. His images did away with needless detail that was emphasized on dynamic diagonals although he was anxious because of placement and also movements of objects in space. Rodchenko influenced directly most of the graphic designer invented in the 20th century his designs which were irresistible to be ruled out since they were persistent enough (Alessandra 32-35).

Rodchenko work influenced several designers especially the American artist Barbara Kruger whose success was as result of his work. His portrait of Lilya Brik contributed much by exciting several consequent works especially the cover page of several music albums one of them was influential Dutch punk band which was referred to as The Ex. Many series of albums were published but all of them varied differently when they were linked Lilya Brick Portrait theme. Rodchenko developed several construction hangings which he presented in the Moscow exhibition together with the Medunetsky, Stenberg brothers and Karl Luganson (Alessandra 18-22).

Conclusion

Paula Scher's designs spoke with the tongue of the past and they emulated style and filled in interesting and new ways.  Some of Paula's work reflects Alexander Rodchenko designs. The main reason as to why there are some similarities in their works is because Paula found novelty within a historical style; however, Paula did not copy any exact piece (Seymour 18). This is how Constructivism, El Lissiztky and futurism come into place for the designers. Art designers and artists like Alexander and Scher learn the language the design speaks and makes use of its vocabulary and forms relationships, reinventing and combined them in unanticipated ways (Paula 15-18).

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