Free Violation of Human Rights during the Syrian Civil War Essay Sample
Over the past decades, armed conflicts have claimed lives of millions of civilians all over the world. Serious violations of the international humanitarian law and human rights law are a widespread practice in many armed conflicts. In certain conditions, some of these violations can even be qualified as the acts of genocide, military offences or crimes against humanity. The recent Syrian armed conflict attracts the international attention because of its severe breach of human rights in this country. Thus, the war in Syria has resulted in the infringement of human rights since it affected the lives of local people.
The Reasons for Human Rights Violations in Syria
Syria has been subjected to a fierce terrorist war for six years because of its geostrategic position. The war is led by terrorist groups that receive all kinds of military and political support from a large number of regimes in the region and the world. The military-political conflict in Syria has lasted since 2011 and Damascus regularly accuses the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, Turkey and the West of supporting various armed groups opposing the government. Therefore, this instability results in severe breach of human rights. The reason is the intensification of strikes against residential areas using indiscriminate weapons. Moreover, the Syrian government forces to continue the practice of arbitrary arrests, enforced disappearances and torture of detainees. The violations on their part include deliberate and random attacks on civilians, the use of children as soldiers, kidnapping and torment in places of the deprivation of liberty.
Furthermore, the military utilize conventional industrial chemicals as weapons, which is prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention. The widespread use of cluster munitions by the Syrian authorities has led to numerous victims and left behind the deadly explosive legacy of the war. In addition, in violation of the UN Security Council Resolution 2139 adopted on February 22, government troops persistently continued to drop high-explosive bombs on the civilian population. Moreover, ordinary citizens have suffered from the destruction of the barrel bomb explosions. One local group estimated that in 2014, 3557 civilians were killed in Aleppo because of air raids. In particular, the extremist group Islamic State and the Syrian wing of AlQaida are responsible for systematic and massive violations. Therefore, the political and economic situation has created an appropriate environment for human rights infringement in Syria.
Remarkably, human rights violations have occurred in Syria since the presidency of Bashar al-Assad. Many studies assert that one of the main reasons of the current conflict is religious views. Thus, the President belongs to the minority group that empowers him to provide beneficial policies for the elite. Hence, the Syrian government constantly suppresses its own people thereby ignoring democratic initiatives of those who have shown their disapproval. Moreover, the authorities often open fire against civilians increasing violence against people. In addition, the Syrian conflict that results in the breach of human rights is an outcome of the expected crisis, which for decades was heated on slow fire. Unfortunately, no one tried to prevent it. Therefore, inactivity, both at the Syrian and international levels, caused this catastrophe and its consequences reached far beyond Syria.
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The Nature of Human Rights Violations
Massive human rights violations have been traced in Syria since the beginning of the military conflict. Thus, shooting at women, men, and children has become a common practice. The evidence shows that the Syrian security forces continue the ill-treatment and torture of detainees. Moreover, the latter disappear in the depths of the extensive network of places of detention that stretches across Syria. In addition, people who try to cross the border while fleeing to neighboring countries such as Jordan, Iraq, and Lebanon are often killed by sniper fire and machine gun. Thus, the attempts to enter or leave the state have resulted in death. In many cases, individuals are denied a permission to cross the frontier without the official reason. However, Syria has signed the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, according to which, any citizen has the right to exit their state if necessary.
Another striking violation of human rights by Assads regime involves children. Hence, soldiers constantly abuse or murder them. The literature reveals that many adolescents, starting from the age of nine, have become the victims of maiming and killing every day in Syria. According to a recently released report, the Security Forces and Armed Forces are responsible for unlawful homicide of children, mostly boys. Moreover, in some cases entire families are slaughtered in their homes. Besides, children and hospital patients suffer from psychological and sexual torture. ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra introduced discriminatory rules for Syrian women and girls. In addition, both factions actively recruited juvenile soldiers. According to reports, in 2014, in Bukamal, everyone who ate or drank in public places during and after Ramadan were flogged by the militants of ISIS; anyone who was seen walking through the streets during prayer was subjected to spanking. The use of the Internet, listening to music and smoking have become the subject of a violent ban.
The Syrian government is also responsible for attacks on healthcare settings in certain areas. Moreover, the government hospitals deny medical assistance to the individuals from the areas controlled by the opposition and associated with them. The literature reports the assaults on medical facilities, personnel, and transport due to their affiliation with opposition. Remarkably, a terrible characteristic of this conflict is a discriminatory denial of the right to receive health services as a weapon of war. Therefore, the government forces use their power to gain a military advantage by depriving the opposition of medical aid. In Syria, the healthcare system is largely destroyed and replaced by a temporary inadequate system that is constantly threatened by the government forces. Consequently, intentional attacks on hospitals prevent people from receiving adequate medical services that constitutes a war crime.
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Reactions to the Event from an International Perspective
Key international forces spend much effort to ensure a fair trial under the international law for the commission of serious crimes by all parties in the conflict in Syria. Thus, the Human Rights Council established the Independent International Commission of Inquiry into the events in the Syrian Arab Republic in August 2011 to investigate all alleged violations of international human rights law and, where possible, to identify the persons responsible for it. The Commission relies on the information received from thousands of victims and witnesses interviewed in camps and hospitals located in neighboring countries, as well as via telephone and Skype in Syria. In addition, more than 140 states condemned the use of cluster munitions by Syria. Therefore, the international community resorts to different ways to stop the conflict.
Furthermore, the UN General Assembly adopted several resolutions to protect Syrian people from the infringement of human rights. Thus, on December 18, 2013, it approved the resolution expressing the outrage over continuing widespread and systematic gross violations of human rights in Syria. Moreover, the UN appeals to all parties involved in the conflict to stop indiscriminate use of weapons in populated areas, including artillery shelling and aerial bombardment. The next resolution passed by the Security Council directly entrusts the UN agencies and their implementing partners with the authority to deliver aid across the borders of Syria and the conflict line. The UN also encourages all member states to take measures at the national level to curb the influx of foreign terrorist militants and entities associated with Al-Qaida.
Neighboring countries, primarily the Turkish authorities, tightened their border control policies to restrict the flow of material assets and militants. The Western states, being fearful that their citizens are trying to enter Syria to join the ranks of militants, also tightened control and other actions in an attempt to stop the influx of foreign militants. The literature reveals that Kuwait announced the measures to restrain the financing of extremists, such as a ban on any collection of funds in mosques, the requirement for greater transparency of the activities of charitable organizations in everything related to the sources and purpose of their donations, as well as official receipts from them. In addition, Saudi Arabia adopted a royal decree that Saudi citizens fighting abroad as a part of terrorist groups were subjected to imprisonment. Therefore, the international community aims at stopping the practice of arbitrary detentions, enforced disappearances, abductions, and releasing all detainees arbitrarily incarcerated.
The recent Syrian conflict is a direct proof of the global instability that breeds terrorism. Hence, these activities result in human rights violations in this country. Thus, many civilians, including children, have become the victims of abuse, killings and death. The nature of these offences is rather multifaceted. However, all of them make the human life dangerous. Moreover, some types of the infringement of human rights can be qualified as the acts of genocide or crimes against local people. In this respect, the Syrian war conflict attracts the international attention. In particular, the UN passed numerous resolutions appealing to stop these unlawful acts. In addition, the world community has adopted appropriate measures to eliminate severe consequences of this event. Therefore, the recent war in Syria has affected the lives of many local civilians leading to the human rights violations.