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The book: Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society addresses several aspects in criminology. It gives the changes in criminal justice and crime control that have taken place in America and Britain. One of the key points that the author addresses is the problem of social disorder and crime. He suggests that the new problem of these is the high crime increase and the fear of it, he also say that the existing programmes and policies no longer give effective security to them. He describes the post world war 2 periods as a time when crime frequency was reduced by affluence and social reforms. Apart from this, it was also a time where the state was responsible for care and the punishment given to the offenders.


According to the author, problems came up due to emergence of high rates of crime and disorder and the fact that criminal injustice was seen to have restricted ability in ensuring security and crime control. Due to this, new strategies were developed to appeal to political, professional and popular sectors. On the other hand, the increase in the culture of control implied different economic approaches of making decision, social control criminology, and a penal-welfarism conception.

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Surveillance and risk are the other key points that the author addresses, he argues that every one in the modern society is living like a prisoner. This resulted to people embracing policies and habits that could have been seen as repressive such as shopping in restricted environments. Personal safety has therefore brought the need to replace the ineffective social policies with 'criminology of the dangerous other' and crime is seen in terms of 'defence' and 'warfare' and social resolution have brought about economic solutions.

The book Conscience and Convenience: the asylum and its Alternatives in Progressive America give details of incarceration in the US and how the society responds to offenders. The first chapter talks about the Legacy of the nineteenth century and addresses the issue of dealing with the evil. The second chapter gives the criminal justice world where justice of individuals were taken into account, probation; where the offenders are watched over, a chance game, and 'up against the prison wall' are addressed. Still in this book, we have The Juvenile Justice world; which entails inventing the Juvenile Court whose responsibility is to ensure that both family and individual community based services are given. Judicial personality Cult and 'When Is a School Not a School' is further discussed. It also addresses Mental Health where those who were mentally ill were treated by the psychiatrist who chose the kind of treatment for each patient.

The key points that the author addresses in this book are therefore rehabilitation and treatment. The author does not see any advantage of the efforts and dedication of those people who worked for the incarcerated. The people working in the hospitals did not show any concern and they were after their interests. The policies and practices were in adequate and were seen to have failed. He gives the importance of not mixing mental health accounts and corrections systems accounts. He overlooks essential aspects of any of the systems and ignores the law developments which put high regulation and thriving standards in hospitals, prisons and other institutions which are similar. The implications of these were seen as unalleviated and the results of the efforts of the reforms were simply to take the initial failures asylums and prisons to new and menacing heights.

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