All papers are checked via
|← Unquenchable||Waiting for Lightning to Strike →|
Frankl Viktor's character alone makes his incredible contribution to the existing theories. He was trained as an analyst bef0ore the 2nd world war in Germany. He was placed in a concentration camp for the period of that war. It was during that time that he wrote his most important contribution, man's search for a meaning (1984). The first part of the book provides the real account of the experience he underwent in the concentration camps, and how he interpreted the events. In the second half, Frankl introduces logotherapy, the term which mean "meaning therapy"
In the autobiography essay ion man's search for meaning, Frankl displays what human beings are capable of in case they realize that they have nothing to lose part from their own life. He has described the evolution of his emotions in the book, as his time while he is in the concentration camp. According to him, human beings are not only free, but at least they are free to something, particularly to achieve goals and purposes. The primary motivation of humans is seen as being the search for the meaning; the absence of meaning, individuals experiences an abysmal sensation of meaninglessness along with emptiness. Problems that prisoners undergo through are made tolerable by the thoughts of beloved people, religion, and grim sense of humor along with the glimpse of beauty.
Such moments of comfort do not establish the will of life unless they assist prisoners in making a larger sense out of their senseless suffering. At this point, Frankl is relating his own experience to existentialism, in which we encounter a theme of such philosophy that to live is to survive and suffer is finding the meaning in suffering. He explains that, if there is a reason of living, and then there must be a reason of suffering and dying, however, nobody can tell the other, what the reason is. Every person has to discover his meaning for himself, and has to accept the responsibility of that reason. If one succeeds, then he will continue growing despite of all indignities and suffering that is found in the atmosphere like that of Nazi concentration camp, (Frankl, 1997).
According to Max, Alienation is the estrangement of individuals from the aspect of their human nature. This is based on the fact that, human nature consists in a particular significant set of drives along with tendencies, whose exercise comprises flourishing. Alienation is a situation under which such set of drives and tendencies are stunted. For essential powers, alienation can be used during disempowerment for making one's own life one's object, one's life becomes a capital object. It is believed by Max that, alienation will be a feature of all societies before communism.
Concerning Freud, he talks of the unconscious in demonstrating the possibilities that individuals might not always be aware of their reasons, and even at times refuse to accept them as out reasons. Individuals understanding of psychoanalysis purpose are bound up with the possibilities of reasons construction as well as causes. According to him, man has two main instincts, namely; self-preservation and sexual preservation. Later, Freud added a third destructive instinct. Explains that, instincts are very important in during life construction.
Sartre defines two types of reality which lie beyond individual's conscious experience; the being of the object of consciousness and that concerning the conscious itself. The conscious object exists as in-itself, meaning in an independent and non-relational manner. On the other hand, consciousness of something is usually defined in something else, and there are no any opportunities of grasping it within a conscious experience, it just exists on its own. A very important feature of consciousness according to Sartre is its negative power by which individuals experiences nothing. This form of power is also at work within self, in which it creates an intrinsic lack of self identity. So as a matter of fact, the unity of self is taken as a duty for the for-itself other than as a given, (Caws, 1979).