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It is a common misconception that good writing is merely the production of a written article, free of grammar, punctuation and spelling errors. This could not be further from the truth, while proper grammar, punctuation and proper spelling are important in good writing, this elements are just but a tip of the ice berg. Good writing should clearly define the purpose with precise supportive information, outlaid via appropriate words and sentences that are clear, concise, emphatic, and correct. An essay is no exception; a good essay consists of three elements of composition: content, structure, and mechanics.
In the argumentative article, ‘AVOIDING TEMPTATION’ by Christine Hoeing, she is able to swiftly persuade the reader into her perspective, through the effective use of means of persuasion , appeal, divided by the great Greek philosopher ‘Aristotle’ into three categories; Ethos, Pathos, Logos also known as credibility, emotional, and logical respectively. The writer is also able to implement various elements in her text to provoke the reader into various responses.
The writer uses rhetorical elements to bring out certain aspects of her article, for instance the writer uses exemplification in different areas of the article for different purposes. For example, to support her point on how banks succeed in luring students into credit cards, the writer describes in detail, through an example of a marketing strategy commonly used by banks. The writer uses a supportive detail, which is an article ‘Credit Cards Go after College Students’ by Kathy Chu to exemplify how Banks offer free items to lure the unsuspecting students into applying for credit cards. The writer also uses exemplification to show how the Colleges are also participating in the Banks ploys to lure unsuspecting college youths into credit cards. She lays out the example in ‘ a matter of fact’ tone, giving specific details on the process e.g.’ ….Banks pay school 1dollar for each student who keeps their credit card open for one day, When students carry a balance, some schools can collect up to three more dollars per card.’ The writer uses exemplification effectively to display the cause and effect analysis. Every example is able to give a detailed existing cause of an issue. For example, using the article ‘Credit Cards Go after College Students’ by Kathy Chu , the writer is able to explain in detail how the ‘free products marketing strategy’ by Banks lures the students into credit cards. This is supported by her other example, where she explains in detail how colleges are paid by Banks to allow Banks to capture new applicant and maintain them in their schools. Through the use of examples, the writer is able to display the cause of the problem in the colleges.
In areas where she cannot use exemplifiers, the writer addresses the issue directly. For example to show the main cause of why students are targeted by Banks, she states that Banks target students mainly because most of them are yet to establish a credit score hence enabling the Banks to charge them higher interest.. The writer then uses exemplifiers again, but this time to display the effects of the problem. For example, the writer uses a detailed example to show the magnitude of the problem caused by credit cards when quotes ‘Credit Cards Go after College Students’ by Kathy Chu where she states ‘…in 2004, the average undergraduate owed $2,169 on credit cards while the average graduate student owed $8,612’.
The writer gains ‘Ethos’ by outlining a clear ‘cause and effect’ in her argument, and backing them up with precise details from a popular, current and credible source, the article ‘Credit Cards Go after College Students’ by Kathy Chu. And the article ‘The truth about credit card reward programs ‘by Melody Hobson. The writer is able to effectively use ‘pathos’ since she is able to provoke emotions of sympathy toward the naïve college students, and anger towards the colleges and Banks who exploit the students. Also, the author maintains a more mature and sympathetic tone towards the situation. For example, she uses words to impose this when she states ‘…vulnerable young adults…’ giving us an impression that she is much more elderly than college students. It also displays her as sympathetic towards the naïve college students hence giving her a significant ethical appeal.
The writer is able to develop ‘pathos’ by first beginning by describing students as ‘vulnerable young adults’. The author then goes on to reveal how the ‘vulnerable young adults’ are betrayed by the colleges whom they trust to protect them. Also words ‘…like credit companies ‘target’ college students….’ Help outlay the college students, as the victims’ hence provoking sympathy from the reader. The author explains in details how colleges betray the youths to the scavenger Banks who seek to exploit the youths. This provokes emotions of sympathy from the reader towards the college students since they are presented as the helpless victims. The author is also able to provoke an emotion of anger from the reader towards the colleges and the Banks by displaying their greed and unethical co operation to prey on the Naïve College students. For example, the author goes so far as to state ‘…colleges should be held accountable and provide resources and ways of avoiding debt rather than supporting the use of borrowed money…’
The author effectively uses logos when she explains the only reason Bank target the college students for credit cards. She reason ‘…a major factor credit companies target students is because they enjoy spending money and also need to establish credit’.
The major claim of the argument is that students should be made aware of the risks and downside of credit cards before being allowed to apply for them. The colleges are failing to perform this and even promoting credit cards applications to the naïve students exposing the students to potential downfalls. The writer supports this claim via narration, cause and effect analysis, exemplification and persuasive argument.
The author is able to use description, examples, and persuasive argument to effectively outline a simple and clear cause and effect in the essay. The writer also manages to use the Ethos, Pathos, and Logos means effectively. The author is able to use this means, to establish a relative credibility with the reader, to be able to manipulate the reader’s emotions appropriately and reason with the reader with a main objective of persuading the reader to support her perspective on the matter.
The authors’ work contains some fallacies which weaken the argument.. For example, in her example to describe how colleges are paid by banks to lure their students into credit cards. She speaks in general and does not give specific examples of Colleges, or credit companies that have done what she alleges. Also, she makes the entire argument weak, when she fails to appeal to the respective authority to take action against this unethical act, hence leaving her article without a definite audience.