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This paper will consider the statements from the book “Global Perspectives on Women and Work: Readings and Interpretations” by Jacqueline Goodman. The main focus was on materials on pages 367-369, 374-375, 386, 389-390, 393, 406-408, 412-415. On pages 367-369 and 374-375, the author looks at the difficult situation in Thailand, where the rights of women and children are being infringed and the HIV epidemic has been recorded. On pages 386, 389-390, 393, 406-408, 412-415, the author examines the main gender and racial stereotypes that prevail in society and hurt the labor market concerning human relations.  The author provides substantiated information based on statistics, research and analysis, which demonstrates its authority and significance. This information is interesting and deep enough to understand many problems of modern society and make personal conclusions.

Pages 367-369 tell the story of a girl named Siri who is forced to work as a prostitute at the age of 15. The girl was sold into sexual slavery and tried to escape from a brothel, but was beaten, raped and returned to a brothel. Because of these events, she sustained psychological and mental trauma, as well as problems with her self-esteem and perception of her personality. Her case is not unique to Thailand, which is surprising because prostitution is illegal there. Here, the author looks at the causes of the phenomenon, examining the socio-economic characteristics of Thailand. Economic benefits and social traditions are the main factors affecting widespread prostitution. For me, this problem is a terrifying phenomenon that destroys the lives of hundreds of thousands of innocent girls and boys.

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On pages 374-375, the author still looks at issues related to prostitution in Thailand. It describes that brothels do not care at all about girls' health because of their easy access to these young girls as prostitutes. In other words, such organizations treat their employees as consumables without providing them with sufficient medical or psychological care. Consequently, HIV has spread in Thailand, making the situation of young prostitutes even more difficult as brothels do not care for girls who are dying. Of course, few rehabilitation charity centers help former prostitutes and HIV-positive women. In any case, such organizations can only help a limited number of people, while others are forced to die or continue working in the brothel, only exacerbating the problem. This part of the book is shocking to me. I think it would be great if international organizations could provide Thailand with condoms to solve at least some of the problems.

 On page 386, there is general information that reveals the essence of automatic stereotyping within society. According to the author, the unconscious stereotyping of potential employees harms their career ambitions as very often employers judge a person by gender, race or looks rather than by qualifications. Examples of such stereotypes may be the perception of men as a priori aggressive individuals or the perception of people under 25 years of age as inexperienced and unskilled workers who cannot benefit the organization. Thus, automatic stereotypes are an unconscious phenomenon that may even contradict a person's conscious beliefs. In other words, established norms in society may cause stereotypes even if the person usually does not support them. This problem is particularly relevant for women who aim at " men's positions" because of gender stereotypes about the incompatibility of sexual features and functionality of the position. Undoubtedly, such situations arise even in our time and the author perfectly conveys the nature of such phenomena, as well as the motivation of people who spread such stereotypes.

 On pages 389-390, the writer examines the role of organizations in combating discrimination. The researcher believes that the management of companies does not care much about the prevention of discrimination, because their main goal is to increase profits and efficiency of employees. I liked the logic of this part, as the author perfectly reveals the essence of external pressure. In other words, it is very rare for the company management to take active measures against discrimination if it is not required from outside. Thus, the negative publicity about such problems inside the firm promotes activation of struggle against discrimination by management. An example would be a media resonance or a complaint to a public organization defending the rights of certain social groups. Even though I agree with these allegations, I believe that in 2020 this problem is already less relevant than before. More and more companies now have a balanced policy on discrimination, preventing it before its occurrence. This fact is particularly true for multinational corporations that prioritize the diversity of their employees.

The writer also addresses the problem of masculinity on page 393. According to this point, many people do not consider discrimination against men to be as important as discrimination against women. The essence of the problem is that the traditional image of a real man has long been established in society, according to which a man should not be feminine, strives for power and money, is always reliable and can resist when necessary. In this way, men are stereotyped as much as women. One way or another, the author says that at the moment sociologists share the differences between men, realizing that masculinity is an abstract and generalized concept, not always corresponding to real notions. Also, the author talks about the different perceptions of masculinity in different cultures. While I agree that it is not permissible to a priori evaluate all men or women equally, some characteristics are more inherent in either women or men. For example, I cannot deny that men are physically stronger than women. One way or another, the universalization of the male image harms both women and men.

The author then turns to the problem of stereotypes as reasons for the decision, which is expressed on pages 406 - 408. According to the writer's opinion, stereotypes have a negative impact both on employees and candidates. Such a notion as statistical discrimination is also discussed in this part. This notion means that employers can judge about a certain group of people based on facts. In other words, even a true stereotype can cause discrimination against certain groups of people in hiring. For example, an employer may make the wrong choice for a person in a management position, believing that the male employee will be more rigid and strict than the female employee. One way or another, in reality, a woman may be much more suitable for a given position because of her specific nature, regardless of gender. This example is my understanding and perfectly reveals the phenomenon described by the author. It also discusses the problem of stereotypes about women in general and black women separately, as one of the most oppressed social groups in the USA. The reason for such stereotypes is that many people perceive black women as a universal image, not as individuals with their features and character traits. Another example is the situation when company executives perceive women as mothers because of their stereotypes. Thus, this perception also negatively affects women's chances of getting the job they want. The author is undoubtedly right and this problem requires more detailed consideration to solve it. These thoughts are close to me and there is nothing to object in the given case.

The author also did not forget to mention the issue of perception of black women as single mothers, considering this subject on pages 412-415. According to this sub-section, the perception of single motherhood as a negative phenomenon puts black women in a difficult position, even if they do not have children at all. Thus, about one-third of white employers had a negative perception of black women, which harmed their chances of obtaining the desired job. This problem is also quite serious and requires active intervention from the authorities. It seems to me that the active promotion of an anti-discriminatory ideology that prioritizes the skills and knowledge of candidates could have a positive impact on this. It would also be great to implement the regulations of the hiring commissions, according to which the commission should consist of several people of different sex and race.

In this way, the author provides readers with an actual social study, which tells about many modern problems associated with human rights violations, as well as misperception of various personal characteristics. Pages 367-369, 374-375 reveal the problem of prostitution in Thailand and the terrible consequences of the HIV epidemic, which has taken hundreds of thousands of lives. In turn, on pages 386, 389-390, 393, 406-408, 412-415, the researcher draws attention to the more common but equally important problems in society due to various stereotypes and discrimination. Here, the author investigates causal relations that affect the perception of women and men of different skin colors within society and in hiring. This information is very relevant and useful, as it allows to look deeper at the issue of discrimination, as well as the main reasons for its formation. Thus, the book “Global Perspectives on Women and Work: Readings and Interpretations” presents a comprehensive study of important societal issues based on sound analysis, personal experience, and scientific evidence.

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