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The term hydrogen was first used in 1970 by a renovated chemist, John Beckrist to refer to a time when all vehicles will be relying of hydrogen as full. Since then, the use of hydrogen powered vehicles has gained prominence. In fact, since the discovery of hydrogen powered Honda in 2008, more than 81,000 bids have been made. This paper researches on the hydrogen revolution in the pursuit of green world.
It was found that the use of hydrogen powered vehicles has changed the life of man positively in many ways. It has led to more environmental friendly energy. It has reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The paper finally considers and recommends that the entire world should be enlightened to embrace the use of alternative energy sources.
The issue of environmental conservation has brought a lot of countries in this century. As a result of the efforts of the environmental activists, a work that has been fully supported by the Paris based United Nations environmental program (UNEP), the world of moving towards greenness. Most prominent, is the adoption of alternative energy for both domestic and industrial use.
Indeed, nature is very unforgiving. It reacts very violently when mishandled. Therefore, a lot of discoveries have been made in this field. In this regard, the research will be focused on the use of hydrogen fuel in vehicles. It will particularly focus on the vehicles. Its definition various models and the hydrogen powered vehicle, the charging trends of the used of hydrogen to power vehicles. Its merits and demerits and finally give a well researched thoughtful workable conclusions are recommendations.
To begin with, vehicle refers to a device that is designed to be used in human and goods transportation. There are many types of vehicles in the world today. Some of them are bicycles, boats, motorcycles, cars, ships, trains and aircrafts. Each and every one of these depending on its features, operate both in the land, water, air or sky. This explains why they are distinguished as wheeled, tracked, railed, and skied or as crafts each designed for use in the space, air, water and land.
Historically, the use of is not a recent development. In fact, according to the archaeological efforts, the very initial use of old a boat in Kuwaiti date was back between 7,000-9,000 years ago. This idea later spread to cogent and Greece in which more advanced two wheel;-war chariots were used in the famous Macadam roads.
Later, more significant discoveries were made by Nicholas Joseph Cugnot who discovered a sell propelled mechanical vehicle in the year 1769. In 1783, Montgolfier brothers, in 1783 made a more improvement to Nicholas inventions. However, the most celebrated step is this line was the invention of the first air craft by the prominent Wright brothers in the year 1903. This was later followed by the legendary Apollo with surprised the world manning the first air space rocket to the moon. And over the years, a lot of improvements have been made in the vehicle industry to the extent that in the year 2010, the number of vehicles in the world was surpassing one billion. Meaning that for every seven people, there is one vehicle. This is a remarkable achievement.
Most importantly, it’s important to report that there are very many industries manufacturing vehicles today. Some of the world leading exporters of are Japan, U.S.A, Brazil, India and Germany. The vehicles are today made using different models. These have differences names like Toyota, Mercedes Benz, Rav 4, Isuzu, and Prado. Each and every one of these rely on diesel, petrol, ethanol, gasoline, solar, batteries, wind, nuclear, electrified rails, human and hydrogen powers for fuel.
Hydrogen CH₂ is the first element in the periodic table. It is found in both groups one and eight. This means that it can exist both as a gas CH₂ and hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming thermolysis, electrolysis and from the hydrocarbons.
The paper specifically analyzed the production of hydrogen directly from steam, a process popular a steam reform. Here it’s manufactured from the main source. The natural gas, which is 80% efficient. It may also use less efficient hydrocarbons. In this process, the steam CH₂O is subjected to a high temperature of between 700-1100⁰с. It then reacts with methane (CH₄) hence yielding the syngas as represented below.
CH₄₍ g ₎+H₂O₍ g ₎ CO₍ g ₎ + 3H₂₍ g ₎ +191.7Kj/mol
After this, hydrogen is then produced at a lower temperature of 130⁰сduring the water gas shift reaction. Chemically, this can be diagrammatically represented as indicated.
CO₍ g ₎+H₂O₍ g ₎ CO₍ g ₎ ₂ +H₂₍ g ₎+40.4 Kj/mol
In this process, the oxygen (O) atom is extracted from steam. This helps to oxidize CO to CO₂. This provides the energy which is used during this reaction. Practically, such a process has been used to many features hydrogen in part Arthur, Taxes, U.S.A. Hence, in 2006, U.S.A menu featured 11 million tones of hydrogen.
This process of hydrogen production is very vital because hydrogen is used in the Haber process to menu feature ammonia gas (NH₃). This gas is in turn used to make fertilizers.
Eventually, hydrogen is also used in the hydro cracking dehydrocydization and aromatization of heavy petroleum fractions. Besides, it’s used as fuel to power vehicles.
During this research, a lot of resources were used. This included the secondary and primary data. Apart from the scientific experimentation carried out, documental; analysis was also carried out. This included books, journals, magazines, newspapers and other publications. Particularly a lot of information was gotten from A Sweet out of the Box Solution to the Hydrogen Economy: Is the Sugar Powered Car Science Fiction? Published by the Environmental Science in 2010, under the authorship of Zang, Y.H.P.
This publication was very instrumental in giving very useful information to the research. From it, the research was able to realize more about the previous researches that have been carried out over the years concerning the use hydrogen as an alternative source of energy in line with the proposals of the Green Economy that was introduced more than one decade ago.
This information was used to answer some of the questions that were put forth in line with the hypothesis of this research. From this publication, it was recoded that the discovery of the use of hydrogen as an alternative source of energy as helped to change the perception of people towards the use of traditional sources of energy like petroleum, diesel, e.t.c.to power the vehicles.
Similarly, a bulk of information was got from the Garrett’s, As Honda Ramps Up E.V‘s and Hybrids Fuel Cell Program Lags. This article was published by the New York Times on 21st July 2010. It had a lot of information about Honda. As already mentioned Honda is a hydrogen powered vehicle. It solely depends on hydrogen for energy that is used to drive it. From this article, the research found out how Honda works. This information was used to enrich the research that was mainly focusing on availing a lot of facts about this unique invention.
As already highlighted, this research mainly focused on the use of hydrogen as a fuel to power. After its launching in 1970, the use of hydrogen power vehicles has gained prominence. It is today used to fuel the space rockets and the automobiles whose power plants are able to convert the chemical energy from hydrogen. This takes place in the combustion engine.
On the other hand, this may also result from the reaction between Oxygen and hydrogen in the fuel cell of the vehicle. This then creates energy that eventually helps to run the electric motors. Therefore, this has seen the use of hydrogen energy in the vehicles to gain popularity over the years.
Even if the price of hydrogen powered Honda FCX is linked at US$130,000. The Japan based Honda Automobile New Model Centre that manufactures the green car ha snot been able to satisfy the market demands for this rate previous commodity.
This means that this hydrogen powered Green car has appealed to people, not online in Japan, but also in U.S.A and Europe. This is based on the fact that this car has more advantages over the others.
In the first place the use of hydrogen satisfies the goals of the proposed hydrogen economy. It is environmental friendly does not lead to the emissions of carbon (ii) oxide (CO₂) into the environment (US department of energy, 2007). Previous researches indicated that the vehicles that rely on hydrogen produced from they fossil; fuel contribute to the reduction of the green house gas emission at the rate of 60% contrary to those that rely on the gasoline powered engines.
Besides, the use of hydrogen to power the vehicles offers an ultimate remedy to the emerging energy crisis in the world today. It will act as an alternative source to replace the other source like petrol and diesel which have become very scarce. The prices of these petroleum products have drastically linked in the world market in the recent past. Because the bulk of transport industries still rely on petrol fuel the cost of life has drastically increased.
This became the increased costs is spread to the consumers of the respective commodities. Hence, to solve this problem, there is need to source for a new source of energy- hydrogen.
Eventually, it’s reported that overreliance on petrol as the major source of fuel; has caused a lot of social problems to the people. Due to the capitalist nature of man, people around the world have been struggling to get oil wells as that are endowed to a few world countries like Iraq, Libya, Texas, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, and Nigeria. There has been a lot of civil wars especially in the areas surrounding these oil; wells. These wars are usually within the state or inter state. For instance, Northern Sudan have been at war with the Southern Sudan for over five decades because of the oil rich Abbey. Such wars have led to constant political instability, loss of life, destruction of property and staggering development. This is why countries like Iraq, Egypt, Angola, and Afghanistan are always chaotic. Therefore, for us to maintain calm, there is need to look for alternative energy source hydrogen. This will make people not to view oil as the only greatest source of well. Instead, they will be challenged to find others as well .Hence, they will; change their attitude and learn to love peace.
Demerits of hydrogen energy
Even if the discovery of hydrogen as a source of power for vehicles has come with a lot of benefits still. It is important to remember that this doesn’t just go free without negative consequences. The use of hydrogen to power vehicles may be dangerous to the life of man in the following ways.
Firstly, during the research, it was discovered that when liquid hydrogen in the storage tanks escapes, it can burn people. Being so reactive, it will immediately react with the oxygen (O₂) of the air to form steam.
This can chemically be represented as;
2H₂ ₍ g ₎+O₂₍ g ₎ 2 H₂O₍ g ₎
This kind of reaction is very dangerous and can cause bruises to the body of an individual when exposed to it.
In addition, it was found out that hydrogen’s dangers are intensified by its nature. It can cause a lot of dangers when it catches fire. This can unavoidably happen without being noticed just because of the chemical and physical properties of this gas.
Just like Oxygen and other gases, hydrogen is invisible. When it catches fire, the flames appear so dim. This makes very difficult to be noticed. Therefore, it means that it can only be noticed after causing a lot of harm to the people in a given place. Consequently, the liquid hydrogen being highly compressed is very cold. This makes it to be so harmful when it comes into contact with the body. When it is exposed to the skin, it becomes extremely cold.
Therefore, this reaction causes a severe condition called frostbite. This may cause a perpetual pain to person.
Finally, the use of hydrogen energy may be dangerous due to the fact that even it fit’s not poisonous, the inhalation of the gas may lead to a condition called Asphyxiation. This may simply mean some form of suffocation. It will trigger this condition will deprive the body of one important gas, oxygen. Biologically, Oxygen is very important to the body for respiration. In its form, it combines with the hemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin, a form that helps in the transportation of nutrients and wastes within the body of human being.
Hb +O₂ HbO
The kind of reaction is however thwarted when one breaths in hydrogen. Meanwhile, it is worsened by the fact that one can’t know when initialing the gas. Physically, hydrogen is odorless, tasteless, colorless and flavorless.
Hydrogen powered vehicle
According to this research, it was unvalued that Honda FCKX clarity popularly known as the world green car is hydrogen powered vehicle. It is manual featured by Japan based company called the Honda Automobile New mid size vehicle with a fuel cell electric motor has a length of 4,834 mm.
It sole tip relies on hydrogen at the source of power for propulsion. Because of this, it has gained prominence in Japan, U.S.A and European countries which have fast fill hydrogen stations. Averagely, the cost of hydrogen gas, particularly, in California, U.S.A ranges from five to ten US dollars per kilogram. Despite this, the car moves at a speed of 123.9 Km per Kg of hydrogen in the city;107.8 Km per Kg of hydrogen in the highways and 115.9Km per Kg of hydrogen in a combine driving.
Because of being the only one of its own kind, it has won major the 2008 good design award, the 2009 world green car award and the most important car for 100 years awards. This has externally made its demand rise with over 80,000 people expressing their bids on it.
There are many people in the world who have won the prestigious Nobel peace price because of their efforts on environmental; conservation. One may ask how peace relates to environmental conservation. The answer is simple. The world can learn to known people if we can learn to practice environmental ethics. God endowed us with resources- the global commons, renewable, non-renewable, just to mention but a few. We should learn to share them generously share them by being environmentally conscious. This means that we should be able to conserve the environment. This can be achieved through the control of pollution by adopting more environmental friendly alternative sources of energy like hydrogen.
Therefore, based on the findings, the paper strongly suggests that more of these vehicles to be manufactured and sold of a cheaper price to the people in all corners of the world not only in Japan, U.S.A and Europe. More of the world Green Car is to be supplied to Africa, Latin, America and Asia continents. With these done, the world will be able to attain a sustainable development that will benefit both the present and the future generations to come.
Surely, this research acts a san eye opener to the people in entire globe. It clearly outlines the role of creating in changing man’s life. There is need for people to learn to think positively to change their environment for betterment of the life of the Illusion people in the world.
People should learn to come to terms with the realities of life, learning from the past mistakes and taking appropriate steps. A lot of research is to be done reaching in all areas with a business to this field in order to help in achieving the green world economy.