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Dyslexia is one of the most common disabilities of language learning but it falls into different types. The various forms of acquired dyslexia will be discussed in this paper as well as the distinguishing characteristics of these forms. One of the most common types of dyslexia is the acquired dyslexia and this is the centre of interest in the entire paper. This is a situation in which people who were normal readers are develop some disorders in reading as a result of some brain damage (Thompson, 1996). The disorders can be classified as either central or peripheral. The central disorders are concerned with the disability to read aloud as well as understanding of the written word while the peripheral disorder is based on the disability to process the written word visual forms (Esgate, 2005). The various views and opinions of a number of workers shall be discussed in this analysis to ensure in an attempt to get to the bottom of this matter.
Some of the outstanding characteristics of general dyslexia are; the person keeps on complaining about feeling dizzy, stomach ache as well as head aches every time they engage in reading, they get confused by numbers, letters, words, sequences or other explanations that are verbal. Another very notable thing in their writing is the fact that there is a lot of repetition, omissions, copying, and writing in their work. The affected people also experience problems with their vision in that they don't see clearly but every time they go for an eye check up, nothing is revealed and the doctors cannot get where the problem is actually. There have been cases in which some individuals have had experiences of seeing or even feeling objects that do not exist in the real sense.
Other areas that the characteristics of different forms of dyslexia can be experienced is on the speech and the hearing capacity of an individual. There have been cases that have been recorded by researchers indicating that the individuals involved hear things that have not been said by anyone or things that cannot be heard by the rest of the people. Other cases involve patients having some difficulties in translating their thoughts into some meaningful words. This is a very serious problem based on the fact that these people cannot be able to communicate properly to the rest of the community. The affected people speak through some halted conversations as a result of broken phrases that cannot be easily understood by other people. Others write incomplete sentences stutters under stress, incomplete, transposing phrases, and other conflicting syllables every time they make an effort to communicate (Ellis & Young, 1996).
Another area that can be used to distinguish the various forms of dyslexia is on the basis of health, behavior, personality and development. There are cases in which there are trouble-maker, too quit or others demonstrate class clown. There cases where these can be affected by ear infections, chemical products or even foods that are too sensitive but this is dependent on the various individuals. However, there are some characteristics that are common among majority of the forms of dyslexia and these includes; extreme disorder (Ellis & Young, 1996).
An assessment of the efficacy of applying the different types of wood pools in differentiating the various forms of dyslexia has been applied in the medical field. In discussing the individual characteristics of this particular disorder, these one will be able to understand the word pools and how to differentiate between all these forms after going through this paper. These forms shall be analyzed in deep so as to establish both the strengths and weaknesses of the various models that are that are applied in this particular. One of the most challenging tasks that the human brain needs to process is the use of language. This is the reason why the process of acquiring the spoken language starts with a careful documentation of the language before the acquisition skills are taught to the concerned people.
As a result, determining the manner in which the human brain is able to deal with the undertaking being able to read the written word is actually a complicated venture (Esgate, 2005). Dyslexia disorders are common within the ability of a person to recognize given words. Some challenges in recognizing forms of word can bring about some impaired abilities to read though the overall intelligence of a person may be normal or in some cases above normal with the cases of dyslexic conditions (Payne & Turner, 2008). As a result, the regions of the brain that are the main target of the dyslexia effects on the brain are the regions that process the visual processing as well as the skills in comprehension (Ellis & Young, 1996).
It is hard for the process to be resolved through a study of the human brain or introspection based on the fact that this is not an easy encounter (Esgate, 2005). The manner in which Psychologists as well as Neuroscientists have made developments in determining the effect of the situation through a careful study of the people who have had some sort of brain damage and as a result incurred disability in reading.
In regard to the acquired dyslexia, there are basically three forms which include neglect dystenia, pure alexia, and attentional dyslexia (Esgate, 2005). The neglect dyslexia impinges on the letter processing of letters in on the left side of the written word. There may be omission of complete words on one side of the written word which in most cases is the left side also (Denhart, 2007). Neglect dyslexia is in most cases accompanied by spatial neglect. This is a neurological syndrome that is consisted of a number of symptoms that can be dissociated partially from one another and are experienced mostly in cases of stroke or any other types of diseases that affect the brain.
When this is realized, there is lack of awareness of objects towards the far left side. Attentional dyslexia is an exceptional disorder that affects the ability to concentrate on the individual letters that appear in a word that has been written (Klein, 2008). This happens despite the fact that the complete word as well as the letters that have been presented can be recognized. In the Pure Alexia which is also known as the letter by letter reading there is no recognition of complete forms of written word (Denhart, 2007). In its place, each of the letter can be identified on separate terms and in most cases this is done alphabetically, prior the recognition of the word. The reading in this case becomes slow with short words being read faster than the long words (Ellis & Young, 1996).
There are basically three types of central dyslexia and these include phonological dyslexia, deep dyslexia and surface dyslexia. The phonological dyslexia predominantly has an effect on pronouncing the letters that have novel strings. Familiar words may be recognized in full or partially while the abstract and grammatical words may be read in some cases in correct terms as concrete as well as imageable words. There are cases of occurrences of visual errors with the semantic errors being eliminated. The deep dyslexia tears down the ability to make pronunciation of the novel letter strings, there is difficult in reading aloud the function words with the abstract words being read out very poorly. The words that are read out best are the concrete words and those words with imageable meanings (Ellis & Young, 1996).
Such reading errors as semantic errors that involve the confusion of a written word with one that is related in the meaning are evident in the sentences (Elias, 1995). Other errors that are evident are the visual errors which involve some confusion of a written word with another word carrying the same appearance. The lastly, surface dyslexia in most cases has some effects on the pronunciation as well as comprehension of words that were previously familiar and had a spelling that is irregular in correspondences of the sound of spelling and this is a situation that affects mostly the words that are less frequent (Hoien, T, & Lundberg, 2000). Such words are in most cases misspelled using the regular pronunciations. The novel letter strings can sometimes be pronounced correctly and partially impaired in some cases (Denhart, 2007).
Acquired dyslexia is associated with diverse brain damage patterns. For example, the Neglect dyslexia is correlated (the lesions) to the parietal lobe that is located in the particular hemisphere whose soul purpose is to process the affected side of space. Attentional dyslexia comes up when the lesions located in the parietal left lobe are concerned (Ellis & Young, 1996). The Pure alexia takes place when the posterior lesions block some material that is presented visually from accessing the language areas. According to most of the researchers, the reading that occurs is processed in the sub-prevailing hemisphere (Hanley, 2011). The areas of language in the parietal lobe as well as the Temporal lobe that are damaged are usually addressed by the central dyslexia (Ellis, 1993). The rest of the reading abilities surface and phonological dyslexia have support by impaired overriding hemisphere processes though the remaining reading in the deep dyslexia have been said to occur inside the less dominant hemisphere (Davis & Braun, 1997).
The deficits in the processing of the peripheral dyslexia give rise in the processing stages of the early visual perceptual. Normally the Neglect dyslexia is seen as a deficit of Attention to a given side of space influencing the letters that underlie within a given area. At times, the deficit impinges on the first letters of the word, regardless of the spatial area that they fall under (David, 2002). Attentional dyslexia may come up when there is an effect in the process of changing the attentional window size from a one word space to that of the single letter that has been affected (I O S Press, 2006). Whenever the letters that appear in the word cannot be processed in parallel, this is the time when pure alexia is thought to have occurred (Heaton & Mitchel, 2001).
There have been number theories in which dispensation of deficits that underlying in the different forms of obtained dyslexia underwent some good explanation in regard to the normal reading models (Dick, 2009). The model that is responsible for the best acquired dyslexia proposes what is known as Lexicon or written forms of words as well as spoken word form. Lexicon is also known as a store of words and the written word form is Orthography while the spoken is phonology and these are the lexica that give way to both phonological as well as a orthological word forms that can be understood through routes that lead to the sematic system that facilitate the storage of the meanings (David, 2002).
Deep dyslexia is believed to give rise as a result of this particular route being exclusively available. word forms of Orthographic nature are also connected directly to the word forms falling under phonology (Feinberg, T, & Farah, 2000). Phonological dyslexia is considered to occur when only the shortest lexical pathways as well as the pathway (semantic) can be accessed for the sake of reading. An additional sub-lexical process analysis of reading of the letter string that has been written into the group of letters as well as links to the sound production is also conducted (Bisiach & Vallar, 1988).