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There has been an emergence of the education programs that cater for the needs of the young children aged between 3 and 4. These programs have been necessitated as there is an increase in the changes seen in the cultures of the individuals as a whole. The emphasis is created at the federal and state level to introduce these kinds of programs to the young generation. This usually ensures the children’s readiness to go to school and to highlight the English language learning society. Hence, the need for these languages in the early stages of learning is very important (Faltis, 2006, p.98).
The participants of ELLs are then chosen from those who are young; this is a very important procedure as it ensures that the individuals are ready and eager to learn new things as opposed to the big age groups. The consent is always taken from the parents or guardians for these inputs to be made. Once they are done, the individuals are given the full scale of the lessons that are available for learning. There are many students in the USA who are developing proficiency in English. Before this course is taken, the other key procedure has to be done: the already enrolled students in the program are included in the designing and administering of the available assessments.
The informal assessment gives the teachers an upper hand in tracking and following what the students are doing in their various classes. Tests are usually provided for the purpose of measuring students at a particular time of the year, but assessments are meant to show the teachers where the students are at every level in the whole year. Through the informal assessments the teachers are in a position to know where the problems are and try to solve them. The ongoing assessments are very important when it comes to ELLs. The tests that are usually provided never place the students where they are supposed to be in a particular time, but the assessments show the skills and the other abilities that the students have as the year unfolds.
The legislation of “No Child Left Behind” requires all the records pertaining to the students be kept and produced when needed for any reference that is required. The two used informal methods of assessments include the performance based assessment and the portfolio assessment. These two methods make use of all the activities that take place in the classrooms to see the developments that have been made to get the goals of the students and teachers achieved. All these activities can be checked and recorded by the teacher and the student as a whole (Garcia, 2001, p.789).
The performance based assessments are those tasks that are made use of in the classrooms. The assessments are always done by looking at the portfolios, demonstrations, presentations and oral reports. These assessments mostly combine the processes that have mentioned above, the tools usually help to document the ELLs growth of an individual over a period of time like one year. When using performance based assessments it is usually important to make clear the criteria from the start, this will ensure easiness in checking the overall performance of children under these programs. When the performance based assessments are used, then the teachers have to ask the following simple questions: what, where, when or read the addresses and telephone numbers to the children (Faltis, 2006, p.900).
The portfolio assessments make use of the practical ways of assessing the student’s work which is done for a period of time. This time might be one year or less. During this period of time the teachers are in a position to collect the information that pertains to the particular student’s overtime. The records are supposed to show some kind of student’s growth which are geared towards the achievement of some objectives.
The portfolios include the sample work, information and the evaluations that are done to serve as indicators for the students’ performance. The portfolios are also a very important way of checking the students’ knowledge instead of using the simple methods. Formally, the teachers employ the assessment of content knowledge that pertains to the students. The students are given a grade to the level of an academic content even when they are still in the process of learning English. When the students are in the intermediate or beginning level of learning English they can always be tested on the other thinking abilities. This will be done by introducing math, science and even the social studies.
The language proficiency status of students is seen clearly when the records of the various students is analyzed. When these records are analyzed the teachers are in a position to know if there is a progress or whether the progress is very slow. The need for the other particular evaluations are very important as when the assessments are done, the teachers are able to know which students are doing well and those that are not doing well in the subject.
Faltis (2006) confirms that during the daily assessments the teachers work hand in hand with those students that are not catching up first and therefore the independent studies are supplied. The students are also requested to use English only as a way of teaching even if the students are from a different native community. This will ensure the proficiency on the part of the students (Garcia, 2001, p.76).