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1. Explain the birth of Jewish nationalism and describe its different forms
Jewish nationalism rose up 3000 years ago as a historical continuity. It is one among the oldest and standing religions even to date. Moses initiated it around 1600 BC. It is not more of a religious civilization, but also a historical, social, and political civilization. This is the reason why people identify it as nationalism. Since the beginning of Judaism, it has taken many directions and changes that have made it to be a wide and strong civilization in different aspects of life. These changes have led to different forms of nationalism (Barbour & Carmichael, 2002).
The first form of Judaism is Conservative Judaism that was established to preserve the Judaism culture in America. Currently it is estimated that there are 1.5 million Conservative Jews in the United States, worshiping in over 700 Synagogues. Their main beliefs are the Torah, Dietary laws of Judaism, Hebrew language, and men worshipping with their heads covered (Gingrich & Banks, 2006).
The second form is Orthodox Judaism that preserves theology and traditions of Judaism in the modern world. It values the written and oral laws together with the Jewish codes of Torah and Talmud. Some members of this oppose modernity observed in dressing, speech, and education. In the United States there are around 1 million Orthodox Jews worshipping in around 800 Synagogues (Kramer, 2001).
The third form is Reconstructionist Judaism that aims at combining Jewish traditions with the modern environment of American democracy. It originated in 1934 and it is contrary to other forms of Judaism since it appreciates modernity. currently the number of Reconstructionist Jews in the US is around 65,000 worshiping in 100 Synagogues (Barbour & Carmichael, 2002).
Reform Judaism is another form that beliefs that Judaism should alter its externals in order to strengthen its eternals. That is to say they belief in reforms. Currently, there are 1.5 million Reform Jews in US with around 900 Synagogues in different locations (Holbraad, 2003).
The last one is the Karaites that believe in the interpreted Jewish scriptures. This was founded in Iraq by Anan ben David and it has 1,500 members in the US with two synagogues (Kramer, 2001).
2. Hungarian, Polish and Czech nationalism in the 19th century. Explain how they contributed to the survival and/or the disappearance of the Hasburg Empire. Define the principle of national self-determination and explain its consequences for central Europe
Polish nationalism rose in 1863 and lasted until 1865, when the last insurgents were captured. These began as a protest by young Poles who were against conscription and was sonly joined by politicians and other high-ranked officials. It engaged in guerrilla warfare and they were able to blunt the effect of the Tsar’s abolition of serfdom. The consequences of the struggle for nationalism were intolerable as many people were executed to other countries (Gingrich & Banks, 2006).
The Hungarian empire comprised the Ural-Altain people who were the Huns. This empire had many legends that became very famous. They had horse- men who used bows and arrows to make shots from galloping horses. This was an organized empire with potential leaders. They made allies with other empires who later exploited them economically and politically. A good example is the Czech nationalism. The Czech enjoyed their independence after the World War 1, when Hungarian empire became weak. They were not ready to cooperate with other republics as they felt strong enough to operate all they have. This is even the case today with this republic (Barbour & Carmichael, 2002).
The collaboration that Czech made with the Hungarian nationalist, contributed negatively to the growth of Hasburg Empire. They made the empire to learn handling things the hard way, where they could be involved in violence and exclusions in order to get nationalism. The empire was joined by Polish, Hungarian, and Czech nationalities among other nationalities thus; it got a strong army as they combined the skills from the different nationalities. Despite many wars that they were involved including the Napoleon wars, they had cooperation that helped in their success (Kramer, 2001).
Self-determination is the international law principle that nations have the freedom to choose their sovereignty and their political status across the borders without any external influence. The principle does not state how the latter are to be achieved. According to the principle, not all groups may legitimately claim the right to self-determination (Holbraad, 2003). At the time of struggle for nationalism in central Europe, self-determination acted as a reaction to imperialism. Nationalism was a uniting ideology between groups, thus, self-determination was seen in this. Self-determination led to some nationalities gaining independence at the expense of others. This was the case with Hungary (Barbour & Carmichael, 2002).
3. Describe the nature of fascist ideology, its rise in Germany and Italy, and the role-played in it by nationalism
Fascism is simply an anti-conservative nationalism built on the grounds of cultural influences and theories. It uses violence in leadership together with mass mobilization. It began in Italy and Germany in around 1890s, when leaders in the nations saw social and political collectivity as more important than individualism (Gingrich & Banks, 2006).
Fascism played a key role in nationalism. The main reason is that it mobilized people to understand teamwork. People learned that each individual is just part of a group, thus, they had to unite for their ultimate success. Collectivity was the order of the day as individualism was seen as a concept in fascism. Some concepts like survival for the fittest, where crucial in fighting for nationalism and came under fascism (Kramer, 2001).
4. Describe the emergence and evolution of nationalism in Russia in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries
Evolution of nationalism in Russia occurred in a sequence from the 18th century through the 19th century to the 20th century. At first in the 18th century, there was template for change. This is what led the people to fight for nationalism. They wanted to be free and exercise self-determination like other powers had done. This then led to political repression at the end of the 18th century, where they were involved in some conflicts (Gingrich & Banks, 2006).
As the wars progressed, they identified ways of making themselves to be independent. This was under revolutionary activities, where many changes were made in different sectors in the society. This led them to exercise collective work, thus, they had to do away with individualism. Lastly was in the 20th century, where they were involved in parliamentary reforms. This marked a change from the traditional forms of governance (Kramer, 2001).
5. Describe the relationship between colonial rule and the development of anti-colonial nationalism and sub-nationalism
Colonial rule was a trait, where some powers had to be above others and use the lower ones as subjects to some personal benefits. For instance, some colonizers depended on their subjects for raw materials. The advantages of the hard work, which were done by the colonies, were for the colonial powers. This is what led to aggression in many nations. The people ended up in anti-colonial nationalism, where they fought for their freedom. People that had been colonized felt that they were equal with the colonizers, however; they helped them to be developed. This is, what led the colonies to engage in sub-nationalism. Whereby, they wanted independence, but still getting some aid from the colonial powers. Nationalism was acquired, when a nation was fully independence and could handle matters on its own (Barbour & Carmichael, 2002).