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Corruption can be defined as a moral category which defines decay and rot. This term is used to describe the aspects of modern life which they find repugnant(Rose-Ackerman, 1994). They tend to condemn brutal video games which corrupt the behavior of young pople and complain about the corruption of politics by pointing out the decline in the public spiritedness and civic virtue. However, corruption does not necessarily involve a financial quid pro quo (Gardiner, 1970). Rather, vulnerable groups or such a respected institution as the United States Senate are at risk of moving away from grace simply because of they are exposed to some trait of the environment, whether it is video games, sexually appealing to human beings television shows or a society’s general requirement of deference and grace.
Klitgaard (1988) asserts that there is some evidence which suggests that the presidential systems especially those that use proportional kind of representation in the legislature may be linked to corruption. The election is not sufficient. However, the state must protect the civil liberties and establish the rule of law. Rules must be clear and fair in order to be administered in a fair and competitive manner. In order to achieve this there must be honest independent judiciary, professional police, and prosecutors who have similar level of integrity and competence.
Corruption can be categorized as legal act. All states have implemented laws against fraud and bribery in the public sector and most regulate the campaign contributions, conflict interest, and campaign spending. Many states tend to penalize commercial bribery and other types of business malfeasance. Regional and international treaties tend to seek control over cross border bribery and, in the end, facilitate the law enforcement.
Rose-Ackerman (1994) asserts that when the government sells goods and services below the market prices, it will force the firm to pay off officials so that it can get access to the state supplies. When the state controls the supply of credit and rate of interest, bribes may be paid to be able to access the money which then may be used during political campaigns. Government tends to impose regulations, levy taxes, and hence enforce criminal laws. When campaign is carried out in the United States, officials who are in charge can delay and harass those with whom they deal, and impose costs in a selective manner that affect firms’ competitive place. Under public regulation campaigns there is some possibility to pay for favorable interpretations of the rules. The reason to do so is as follows: regulations can be unclear and give much discretion to the officials or when regulation agencies tend to be new and unproven.
For example, when governments engage in large projects and transfer assets in such a way that has an important impact on the wealth of the foreign and domestic business organizations, they frequently contract major construction projects such as highways and improvement of the port, allocation of natural resources concessions and state owned firms. Those high level politicians have the ability to use their influence to collect payments from private sectors of all regions (Ades & Tella, 1995). The relative power of the government private and official’s interest may, in practice, tend to be difficult to define. Most politicians tend to have family interest in drug companies; hence the institution which approves drugs does not have to depend on politicians. The solution which can help to control politicians’ access should suggest that the drug agency has to be genuinely independent of politics and has to introduce more transparency and public justification during the procedure of drugs approval. Additionally, international standards such as World Health Organization’s Essential Drugs List should be used as a reference point. The main cure for corruption can not be macro-economic rules which promote economic growth.
During recent years heroin was almost utterly unknown to the middle class population including professors and college students; it was rarely mentioned in the media. This drug causes addiction and is often associated with people who oppose socializing enlightened politics and the counter-culture (Young, 1994).
Young people are routinely exposed to heroin during their teenage years despite the fact that school provides drug education. The child health behavior is influenced by parents. The children raised by parents who conscientiously take care of them are less likely to use drugs (Young, 1994). Similarly, warmth and support of parents are not usually associated with adolescent drug users. Often most parents lack knowledge about drugs and do not have enough confidence or communicative skills to effectively and clearly talk about this problems with children.
The other reason why there is a dramatic increase in drug abuse is that drugs are nowadays more available and cheaper. There is groups of students from different schools and backgrounds who take drugs and tend to influence others. However, since there is no coherent national level approach to launch and support anti-drug campaigns, this situation will continue to deteriorate and negatively affect young people who do not receive adequate drug education. There is also increase in the number of children who suffer from attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder. They are at high risk of using drugs in future. People who live in communities with mixed ethnicity are more likely to be involved in drug abuse like heroin. Additionally, there is also higher rate of drug abuse among children whose siblings misuse drugs in comparison with those whose do not have such problems (Young, 1994). Initially, young people whose parents have been using drugs during the previous year are twice as much inclined to use drugs themselves compared with young people whose parents had not been taking drugs.
The main cause of the increase in the use of heroin in Russia is the lack of drug education programs which focus on parent education and family intervention. Peers and friends significantly encourage young people to experiment and hence develop their own sense, but without control some experimentation may lead to heroin addiction.