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It is said that individual reasoning is influenced by the differences in ideologies towards ethical situations and problems. There are diverse ethical ideologies that play a crucial role in influencing the perception of people towards diverse situations. In general, moral philosophy involves various activities such as defending, recommending, as well as systematizing the concepts that are related to wrong of right behavior. In their pursuit of a unified manner of investigation into human behavior and its origin, philosophers seek to address the question the origin and influences of human moral principles. Similarly, they seek to unveil the underlying facts about reason and ethical judgment as well as universal truths. Human morality is highly influenced by moral judgment of right and wrong. As a moral being, there are habits that are deemed essential and therefore need to be articulated more. Moral judgment and morality are crucial in resolving controversial issues. This understanding is based on human telos which emphasizes that every human being pursues a certain objective towards a specified end. In view of an ethical problem like abortion, the application of moral judgment, human morality and consideration of the human telos is helpful in attaining a right response.
Application of the ethical issues in an ethical problem
In view of the diverse moral problems, judgment accorded to moral standards followed by behavior evaluation in accordance to the set standards do not always lead to cause certain actions (Barnett, Bass, & Brown 470). The existence of moral judgment is not a guarantee to observance of moral standards. For instance, the fact that that one knows that action X is the right to be done does not guarantee that they do it. The fact that one fails to do what they perceive as right can be traced to the absence of motivation to do so. The absence of motivation is caused by level of human morality exercised by an individual. In moral philosophy, moral judgment is regarded as being idle if the person possessing it does not exhibit the desire to pursue morally acceptable actions. Human morality is considered to be a completely individual perspective as it is based on free choice of course of action without any external interference on choice (Perkins 305). The choices made on courses of action and moral tendencies adopted are particularly based on the diverse orientations that individuals and groups possess. It is the pursuit of the different ends that philosophers refer to as human telos. A combination of the moral judgment, human morality and human telos play a crucial role in addressing an ethical problem such as abortion.
In regard to an ethical problem like abortion, philosophical approach can be particularly effective in addressing the issue. There are several approaches that can apply in the review of abortion. To start with, whether abortion is right or wrong depends on availability of a universal human value system that is free from personal desires and optional preferences. Immense controversy is associated with abortion. For instance, the issue requires application of several factors considered imperative for the sustainable application of morality (Golding & Foster, 200). To start with, several general and normative principles like right to life and free will as well as choice are imperative in determining the course of action in dealing with abortion. Similarly, abortion is affected by metaethical concerns such as the origin of rights that human beings and other beings claim to have. A lingering question in abortion and virtually all other ethical problems and dilemmas is on the importance of being moral. According to Thomas Hobbes, a 17th century philosopher, selfish desires greatly motivate human actions. For instance, even if it is seemingly a burden for a mother who got pregnant through rape to have a baby, selfish desires can prompt her to avoid abortion. For instance, fear of stigma can and desire for acceptance can make her avoid abortion.
The pursuit of interests on the basis of self-orientation has been described as psychological egoism. As a matter of fact, psychological egoism acts as a motivator for the different human actions. Similarly, philosophers have argued that psychological hedonism; view of human actions being driven by pleasure, also plays a great role in determining human actions. In human morality, individual freedom is considered very important. If one is at liberty to do as they will, they can be said to be exercising their rights (Rasmussen 124). By so doing, that person pursues their human telos. However, if one is lured into an action due to the need for societal approval, they cease being themselves. The choice of the actions based on the others' perception deprives one off their natural right to property, life and freedom. Considering abortion as a severe ethical controversy, many people end up avoiding their rights and freedoms for public approval. This cannot be said as being oneself or acting on the basis of their own human morality. They base their judgment on others; a fact that affects their human telos immensely.
Ethical problems are generally difficult to solve. There are various moral considerations that would be considered if a solution is to be obtained in the controversy that abortion faces. Unlike in some ethical issues where the end results determine the rightness or wrongness of an action, controversial ones like abortion involve competing principles of choice. The major problem here is the fact that the principles often present completely opposite ends. Therefore, there is propensity for consideration conflicting principles in human morality. Nevertheless, the ultimate course of action undertaken should be based on fair judgment that is purely based on human morality in order to safeguard human telos.
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