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Personal differences and preferences are very influential in any organizational ethics. This is because they affect the way the individuals in an organization behave in the organization. To start with, interests and preferences limit transparency in an organization. An individual is compelled to conceal certain vital information in order to safeguard their personal interest and preferences. For example, Valerie's interests and preferences are a priority to the organizational ethics (Hellriege, 2010).

More so, personal differences and preferences affect an individual's way handling issues in the organization. This is because people have different values and judgments on certain issues in life. Some people do not find any fault in taking bribes, while others do. Therefore, this imbalance affects the organizational ethics negatively (Sterba 2009).

Moreover, some individuals prioritize their interests instead of the organizational interests. As a result, they attend to their interests first at the expense of those of the organization. For instance, Waters and Valerie have different personalities and preferences; thus different ethical practices. Waters wants to enrich himself as soon as he can by using the organization's resources, and kickbacks. On the other hand, Valerie is uncomfortable against the idea, though she also has her preferences. She contemplates attending to her interests first before settling the organization's problem (Hellriege, 2010).

Consequently, their personal differences affect the organizational ethics because they do not obey them. Individuals discard their moral values in an attempt to meet their interests first. For instance, integrity, transparency, loyalty and obedience among others are ignored in the organization.

Impact of organizational policies and procedures on ethics

Organizational policies and procedures can affect ethics in certain ways. These are codes of conduct of an organization meant to guide the employees' behavior. An organization that abides by the procedures and policies succeeds in its operations. First, ethics facilitates the recruiting program in any organization. It ensures that the organization employs and retains the most qualified personnel (Sterba, 2009). This is done through fair and transparent procedures followed in the recruiting process. Codes of conduct alleviate bribery and kickbacks in a given organization.

Secondly, these policies and procedures enhance a conducive and more fulfilling working environment in an organization. This is due to the fact that the organization is free from any conflicts that could be caused by unethical practices (Hellriege, 2010).

Thirdly, codes of conduct can build good reputation of the company and the employees if they are obeyed. They also ensure that there is trust among the employees, and allows free discussions on such issues. Moreover, these ethical guidelines ensure that the vision and mission of the organization are matched with the employees' efforts.

Nevertheless, organizational procedures and policies can negatively impact ethics in an organization. First, they can make the workers feel that they are not trusted in the organization. This is because they make the organization appear bureaucratic. The employees will feel restricted in the organization (Hellriege, 2010).

Furthermore, employees will tend to obey these policies and procedures continuously; hence they become rigid and unfriendly. This, in turn, will affect the organization's productivity since the employees are not working effectively. Some will even revenge on the strict guidelines and end up becoming unethical in their behavior, for instance, Waters in Valerie's story.

Valerie's ethical dilemmas

Valerie is facing certain ethical dilemmas in Wisson Company where she works in the fragrance department. Her boss, Waters has collaborated with only two companies to work with Wisson as long as he gets the kickbacks. This has a negative effect to both the company and the whole team. Upon discovery, Valerie is in a dilemma of what to do about the situation. She is aware about the risk involved in reporting exposing the situation to the public. Some of the ethical dilemmas involved in this situation include:

Firstly, Valerie is likely to lose her job at Wisson if she reports her boss's unethical practices. This is because the boss is likely to be fired from the company if Valerie reports him. Since Valerie is in the team that Waters is leading, she stands a risk of losing her job because the entire team might be eliminated in the company. Therefore, Valerie is undecided on whether to report the case or watch the company deteriorate. Besides, she is a non-citizen who only has 30 days to get another job in the country (Hellriege, 2010).

Secondly, Valerie is a not a United State's citizen, but works under special conditions by the company. This implies that her permit to leave and work in the United States relies on her employment in Wisson. Therefore, the company determines her stay in the United States. Valerie faces a dilemma of reporting Waters' case because she might also lose the job. Moreover, the Immigration and Naturalization Service is limited the chances of the non-US citizens to get employment in the country. Additionally, the US companies are hesitant on employing such people due to long procedures in the immigration offices (Hellriege, 2010).

Thirdly, Valerie is at crossroads on whether to safe the company her interests in the United States. This is because she has recently obtained an entry to the University of Chicago, for a master's degree in science.  Thus, losing her job means that her stay in Chicago is terminated.

Besides, her fees is paid by the company is she performs well in her studies. Consequently, Valerie is undecided because the company's welfare is at stake, but her interests are equally at stake. At this point, she wants to put her preferences before the company state.

Fourthly, Valerie seems to be ethical in that she gets mad at Waters' evil practices. Therefore, failure to report the case means compromising with her moral values. In an attempt to safeguard her preferences, she stands a risk of complying with the boss's unethical practices. Thus, she is in a dilemma of following her heart or her interests (Hellriege, 2010).

Additionally, codes of conduct in an organization demean the workers in that they make feel inadequate in making sound judgments. They do not give them space to do things on their way; hence killing innovativeness among them. Individuals who feel restricted to a certain way of handling issues do not perform well in their job (Hellriege, 2010).

Recommendations

Although she faces the above dilemmas, Valerie ought to stand firm and let her conscience lead her in making her decision. Explicitly, her decisions are determined by her interests and the boyfriend's suggestions. Nevertheless, she is uncomfortable with the situation even after considering al the alternatives. Thus, Valerie should report the case before it gets of hand.

Besides, the situation haunts her and is likely going to haunt her forever. In any case, if she conceals the information, the company will finally collapse; hence, her whole team will lose its job. Therefore, she should report the case the case to the relevant authorities, and look for another job. Most likely, she will be retained in the company if she safes it from collapsing. Additionally, she should not worry about the consequences of her action because she will retain a clear conscience. This is very important in that she can then work well in any other place. Failure to report the case, she stands a risk of failing in her studies since her mind is not settled.

Conclusion

Personal differences and preferences impact organizational ethics negatively. Additionally, organizational procedures and policies affect ethics in a way. Imperatively, individuals should not compromise their ethical values because of their selfish interests and preferences.

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