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Introduction to The body system
The human body system is one of the delicate units of systems made up of a marvel structures made from a combination of billions and billions of cells. It is made in a sense that one system cannot work in the absence of another system. The human body system comprises of the following systems:
These are the circulatory system, digestive system, reproductive system, endocrine system, immune system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, nervous system, urinary system, muscular system, and the skeleton system.
Circulatory system-This is a combination of various organs, which facilitate the transportation of blood in the body. It comprises of veins, arteries and the heart. The heart bumps in blood for oxygenation through the veins. The oxygenated blood then leaves the heart through the left ventricles and goes to the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. From the aorta, the blood is then distributed to the smallest arterioles. The human circulation is divided into three parts: the pulmonary flow, the systemic flow, and, the coronary circulation (Margulies, 2004). Each of these works independently to perform the work of oxygenation.
Digestive system-This system is made up a digestive track starting from the mouth down through the esophagus to the anus. When food is taken in through the mouth, it goes to the stomach where it is broken down into simplex food components like proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals and fats (Brooks, 2007). This process is done with the help of digestive enzymes present in the stomach. From the stomach, this simplex- food travels down to the small intestines where absorption takes place with hormonal control. The undigested food- waste products are eliminated from the anus.
Reproductive system-This system is essential for reproduction. It allows humans to produce children. It can be either a male reproductive system or a female reproductive system. It comprises of internal and the external reproductive system.
The male system is made up of the urethra, testicles, scrotum, prostrate glands, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, and penis. With the help of prostrate fluids produced by the prostate gland and other fluids, the sperm cell travels down to the penis via the vas deferens.
The female reproductive system consists of the ovum, fallopian tube, ovaries uterus, cervix, and vagina. The ovaries produce an egg, whereby in the presence of a sperm, the egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube, which eventually travels to the uterus for implantation.
If fertilization does not take place, the unfertilized egg passes through the uterus out via the vagina in a process called menstruation (Gylys. A. B Mary Ellen Wedding. E. M. 2009). Hormones facilitate all this process.
Endocrine system-This is a system which influences all the body organs and there functions. It comprises of hormones and glands. The gland produces and secretes hormones, which regulate the growth of the body. Hormones help in the transfer of messages or information from one part of the body to another. The major glands of the endocrine system are the pituitary, thyroid, hypothalamus, adrenalin, and the reproductive organs.
Immune system-This is a system, which defends the body against infections and diseases. It is made up of tissues, a network of cells and organs working together to protect the body. The cells are the white blood cells. The body has three response systems: the atomic response, immune response, and the inflammatory response.
Lymphatic system-This is also a defense system for the body. It is made up of a network of vessels that help in the transportation of excess body fluids between the tissues and organs and drains it into the blood system. It works by filtering out organisms causing bacteria, generates disease-causing bacteria, and produces white blood cells. It also facilitates the distribution of fluids and nutrients in the body.
Respiratory system-The main function of this system is to supply blood with oxygen. It consists of the lungs, trachea, bronchi, and the diaphragm.
Nervous system-This system is made up of the spinal cord, the brain, and the nerves. It is the main system in the body that is, a control system. It receives processes and sends the nerve impulses throughout the body. This system is divided into three sub-systems: the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the peripheral nervous system.
Urinary system- also called the excretory system. This is a system, which eliminate waste from the body in the form of urine. This waste is produced when the body eliminates the wanted nutrients and the remaining food called urea is eliminated. Urine travels to the bladder through thin tubes called the urethras. The bladder then eliminates it to the outside environment via the vagina in female and the penis in male.
Skeletal system- this is the framework of the body. Its system is made up of tendons, bones, and ligaments. It is a system, which keeps the body in shape and protects the vital internal organs in the body like the heart, the brain, and the lungs (Fullick, 2006).
Muscular system-this system works in hand with the skeletal system. It is made up of tissues, which controls the movement of the body. These muscle tissues are of three types: the skeletal muscles, which assist the body in movement, the smooth muscles that are located in the body organs and the cardiac muscles, found in the heart. These muscles can also be either voluntary or involuntary.
In conclusion, not all this systems work as an individual unit, but the final product is one unit baring the name body. Each of all this systems depends on one another hence keeping the body functioning normally.