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Introduction

Tobacco has been known to cause a lot of health hazard and risks for instance heart diseases like heart attack which occur as a result of insufficient oxygen in the heart which ensures that hearts walls are thin, but the concentration of carbon monoxide being higher the hearts walls are thickened resulting to heart attack, and heart failure, respiratory diseases which may include lung diseases like lung cancer and bronchitis, blindness as well as osteoporosis.  In women it is known to cause reproductive complication which may include premature births, miscarriages, birth defects in babies and they may give birth to children who are underweight. Women therefore need to be restricted from using tobacco. People using this substance and passive smokers are therefore exposed to these adverse effects since the smoke that is released into the atmosphere mixes with the air they breathe. This therefore states clearly that those not using the substance are at risk of lung and heart related diseases. Using tobacco is therefore wrong and should be discouraged completely.

Tobacco is a powerful plant that is largely grown in developing countries as a commercial crop and as a garden crop in the developed countries. Tobacco is used in the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, snuff forms and pipes. It is mostly used by people for pleasure and for recreational and relaxation purposes in developed nations, but in developing countries it is used by mostly idlers as a form of relieving stress as well as for pleasure as a result of influence from other people. The use of tobacco in other cultures is for religious purposes and fulfillment and food for their gods. The use of tobacco is therefore good and bad. Tobacco use is right since other regions of the world they serve religious purposes. For instance, the native North Americans believe that the smoke emanating from tobacco carry prayers to God who is heaven. Although smoking tobacco has not been specifically prohibited some religions term it as an immoral habit (Mondico 2008)

According to Mackay and Erickson 2003, the use of tobacco and its products as been considered a worldwide problem since there is no other consumer good that is as dangerous as tobacco, but people tend to ignore this. According to them tobacco causes many deaths than AIDs, road accidents and other legal drugs while WHO 1997 states that those involved in smoking are majorly those who are in adolescence because of the environmental influence, smoking decreases as one continue with education. But those who continue smoking die prematurely due to tobacco related diseases (Mackay 2003) Tobacco contains a chemical substance called nicotine which is highly addictive once a person uses it is difficult for one to leave.  The nicotine contained in the tobacco is a vital component in the lives of those using them since it reinforces their self administration and increases their locomotors activity. Medical practioners have also said that the plant contains more than five hundred addictives that are harmful. Smoking of tobacco products is known to cause more adverse effects more than using alcohol and any other substance.

Discouraging the use of tobacco would mean that a lot of effective interventions have to be made. This would call for the efforts of various government bodies like the ministry of health and parastatals involved in public health, health organizations like the World Health Organization and NGOs and individuals who understand the impacts of using tobacco and its related products. This is due to the fact that many governments around the world spend a lot of funds on tobacco related diseases and also losing its workforces and its adolescences.

The public has to be sensitized on the adverse impacts of tobacco use. Sensitization and creation of awareness to the public is a task which the ministry of health of any nation has to be into consideration. This is to reduce the cost of spending on treating patients suffering from tobacco related diseases; on the other hand reducing the health cost of families having a patient suffering from the above   Ministry of health ought to perform this so that the public can know the effects of using the same. Intensive campaigns against the use of the substance will mean a reduced number of smokers and hence a healthy population. This has been done in the United States. In addition to this, the dangers of using tobacco should be included in the teaching curriculum so that pupils can about it. This will enable them to understand the side effects of tobacco and thus helping them to make rightful decisions when it come drugs. This is because most of the schools going children are greatly influenced by their peers and their quest to indulge or experiment on new things is very high. The incorporation of this topic in the learning environment will mean that more youths and adults will understand tobacco and its impacts.

The massive campaigns done by cigarette manufacturing companies have to be banned since more youths are attracted to such activities which in the long run lead them to smoking and use of tobacco related substances. In relation to this, parents of the youths ought to restrict them in the activities they can undertake since they mostly engage in smoking due to influence from their friends. (Stephen & Caparro 2002)

If smoking or use of tobacco related products is to be legalized, governments should set aside place for smoking (smoking zones) so that these smokers can cause harm to themselves and not to the public. This would mostly apply in urban areas where the local governments can designate places for smokers to stop them smoking any how in the busy streets of the towns, worksites, restaurants and public squares and parks. This will also prevent the public from being exposed to the same. The creation of these smoking zones needs that the rules are followed strictly. This tends to reduce the number of people smoking and also others stop smoking since if they are caught smoking anywhere in the town there are penalties. The reason behind this is that most people do not prefer working with people who smoke. (Caparro 2002)

In addition to this, national governments have to impose a lot of tax on cigarette  manufacturing companies so that the cost of purchasing one cigarette may be higher hence limiting the number of people who can afford. This measure in the long run leads to reduced number of smokers and as well as increased amount of revenue collected from the tobacco industries. This measure should be widely seconded by many for the benefit of all.

While governments impose rules and regulation concerning tobacco use, governments have to come up with cost effective methods which are vital in controlling the use of the substance and prevention of its use. These may include, undertaking monitoring and evaluation exercises on tobacco use and prevention policies and regulations so as to determine the level of its commitment in discouraging the use of tobacco. Furthermore, government agencies concerned with enforcement of rules and laws have to enforce laws regarding the ban of tobacco promotion and advertisement.

The government ought to offer support and help to those who want to quit smoking. As most of the youths are smokers and users of drugs, government need to establish rehabilitation centers where these people can be accommodated and be taught on the impacts of tobacco use and how to venture in other activities for them to be busy and also in income generating activities. The government may also offer support by granting them technical education in vocational colleges offering various courses that are vital in the country's economy and as well for the wellbeing of these individuals. Connecting or ensuring that the youth are attached to institutions of learning where they will be thought on the effects of tobacco. Since youths attached to institutions feel that they are cared for and their wellbeing is taken care of. This helps the youth to focus on their studies making them to avoid engaging in risks behaviors' including the use of tobacco. This translates to improved grades in class as well as improved and better workforce in the future.

The government may provide micro- finance facilities to youth so they may diversify their skills and venture in business which at the end make them busy and as such leaving their smoking habits. In addition, individuals living with people who smoke should discourage them since they can a source of positive influence to him or her. This is because smokers knows and acknowledges that their smoking behaviors irritate people they stay with and those around their environment. The reason behind this is that smokers are also triggered or driven by other smokers since when a smoker goes to where there are smokers he/she will automatically smoke.

For tobacco use to be illegal also, doctor -smoking patient interaction has to be encouraged so that these patients can be advised accordingly on matters pertaining life and death. When doctors advise patients on the dangers of continuing to use the substance, patient would prefer to quit smoking before it is too late since doctors brings in the real perspective of tobacco related diseases. The ministry of health through its employees has to encourage this kind of interaction since when a patient is advised concerning the same he or she will pass the same information to non-smokers and those who intend to do the same. This in the long run led to lower consumption of tobacco products.

On the other hand, counter advertising has to be practice and be encouraged so that health diseases cause by the use of tobacco is displayed to the public through the media. This would involve bringing into the real world how the diseases affect human respiratory organs. Displaying this in pictures will mean that people will make informed decisions in life that will enable them not use tobacco.

Tobacco farming has to be prohibited since it has led to mass deforestation and the use of pesticides and fertilizers are harmful to the environment. In countries where there is tobacco farming, vast forests have been destroyed and as a result as led to increased carbon dioxide in the air. Thus, the need to stop tobacco use and it's growing.

In as much as tobacco causing harmful effects, it is still a booster of the rural economies. Thus, imposition of strict rules and laws regarding the use of the same material means that the rural economies are deprived. This is due to the fact rural farmers may largely be depending on its sale and as such their lives may be affected. In addition to these, those who are involved in the manufacture and distribution of tobacco products like the manufacturers and business people are affected. This means that tobacco growing and its use should not be banned since it is a source of livelihood to most people

If tobacco is to be legalized, farmers ought to be encouraged to get license from the government so that the number of the people growing it can be reduced in as much as the government is trying to limit its use. Licensing is the best way which the government can use to cushion farmers from being totally locked out of production and development. Inconjuntion to this, farmers have to be encouraged to diversify their farming activities to reduce overreliance on tobacco for them to earn a better living.

Moreover the government has to urge the manufacturers to reduce the percentage of nicotine content found in cigarettes and other tobacco products before they are sold in the market. This would lead to reduction of health hazards among the population and also the manufacturers gaining access to the market. This will only happen if the government implements the law concerning the same (Sellman 2009)

Conclusion

Tobacco is a health hazard and at the same times a source of income to the rural economies. The efforts of health bodies have to be geared towards reducing the number of those smoking, the smoking rate of the population and the use of other products of tobacco. The reduction of these, normally leads to reduced occurrences of smoking related diseases among the population of a nation translating to reduction in health costs and investment spending in the health sector. This therefore leads to an improved economy since the funds that could have been used in the health sector can be channeled to other sectors like education sectors and infrastructural sectors which are the important sectors in any country's economy.

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