Free National Aids Prevention in India Essay Sample
The National Aids Prevention and Control Policy was formed in 1987 and it included programs of behavior change, condom use, community information and education and blood safety.
What are the key objectives of the policy?
The key objectives of the policy are;
- To generate an ownership feeling among all participants both at the government and non-government levels, like the agencies of the government of India, city corporations, central ministries, industrial takings in private and public and various local bodies to make it a real national effort.
- To reiterate the government’s commitment to prevent the spread of HIV infection as well as to reduce personal and social.
- To strengthen management capabilities at the state government, panchayat institutions, municipal corporations and major NGO participating in the program.
- To bring children, women and other groups from becoming vulnerable to the infection through improving health education, economic prospects and legal status.
- To provide adequate health care to infected people and to draw attention to the compelling health rationale for overcoming stigmatization, seclusion and discrimination in society.
- To interact with international and bilateral agencies for support and cooperation in research field in drugs, vaccines, financial and emerging systems of health care.
- To promote better understanding of the infection among people, especially the youth, students and other sexually active sections in order to generate greater awareness about nature of its transmission and to adopt safe behavioral prevention practices.
- To create an environment for prevention of HIV, to provide support and care for people with HIV and to ensure protection of fundamental human rights including the right to access to health care, right to employment, right to privacy, right to education and to mobilize a large number of NGOs and CBOs for enlarged community initiative for prevention and complete alleviation of the HIV problem.
Who are the policy-makers?
The main policy maker is the Indian government which makes the policies through National AIDS Control Committee. This is a high powered committee that was constituted in 1986.
Which, if any, interest groups do they represent?
The National AIDS Control Committee represents some important groups such as the National Aids Control Organization and State AIDS Cells which are at national and state levels respectively.
Have they been consulted and what sources and kinds of advice have been obtained?
The policy makers have been consulted on various issues relating to HIV/AIDS in the country. The obtained advice or information from the policy makers include, advice on the control of sexually transmitted diseases, advice on blood safety, advice on research and surveillance, advice on use of condoms, and advice on reduction of the impacts of HIV/AIDS.
What have been the stages and methods, including organizational arrangements and structures, used in the policy-making process?
The government created awareness programs in urban and rural areas. For instance, Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) was carried in 2001 in various states through which the government was able to determine the overall awareness about the problem in women and men as well as in different ages. There are various organizations in the country that assists the government in policy making. They include Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community Based Organizations (CBOs)
Definition, scope and magnitude of the problem
It is thought that HIV/AIDs is spreading in the country whereby new infections occur among the most vulnerable populations such as female sex workers and injecting drug users. There is also overwhelming infections that occur through heterosexual sex. Women and men who are in unfaithful relationship are vulnerable to getting HIV/AIDs.
Who is affected?
The affected people include the women, men and children who have experienced the impacts of HIV/AIDs. For example, these people are affected by the economic problems that are associated with the problem. Another affected party is the government because it has been given the responsibility of ensuring that the impacts of HIV/AIDs are minimized or alleviated in the country.
Specific nature of the problem
The Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome epidemic is one of the major problems in India. The rough estimate of people infected by HIV in the country was about 3.8 million in 2000. The overall HIV preference in India is however low than other Asian countries. This problem has negatively impacted the country’s economy and it has led to discrimination whereby people living with HIV/AIDS are being discriminated in the society. For example, people are discriminated in their places of work. These people are also stigmatized.
Past history/ Background literature
The first evidence of HIV infection in the India was seen in 1986 and HIV has been since detected many states in the country. In 2002, the Indian government estimated that about 3.8 million people were infected with HIV whereby the high preference rates were found in
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Maharashtra, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu.
Existing data on this population
According to the Behavioral Surveillance Survey that was carried by the Indian government in 2000-2001, the overall awareness of the problem among people in the reproductive age group was) was 76.1%; females-70% and males –82.4%. In the rural areas, 77.3%respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS as against 89.4% in urban areas. The lowest awareness rates were among rural women in Gujarat (25%), Bihar (21.5%), Uttar Pradesh (27.6%), West Bengal (38.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (32.3.%).
Other sources indicate that India has a low HIV prevalence of about 0.34%. In terms of infected individuals, the country harbors the third largest number of people with HIV/AIDs in the entire world
New data collection/analysis
Now that the policy is in place, new data should be collected and analyzed based on the impacts of the policy in preventing HIV/AIDs in India. The data should be analyzed to determine whether the policy is effective or not.
Re-analysis of existing data
After the collection of new data, the existing data should be reanalyzed to clearly determine the effectiveness of the policy. This will enable the policy makers to decide whether to continue with the policy in its current form, make changes to the policy or revert to different policies that may be considered effective in the prevention of the problem.
Is it good policy? What has it achieved so far?
According to the survey, this policy is important in India because it has enhanced the prevention of HIV/AIDs. It has succeeded in controlling the disease among the vulnerable people together with promotion of the use of condoms, ensuring that safe blood and blood products are readily available to people, reinforcing traditional Indian morals among people and making them aware of the implications of HIV/AIDs and providing them with appropriate protection tools. Also, the policy has enabled social-economic environment so that makes people to protect themselves from HIV. Finally, the policy has enhanced the improvement of care services for infected people both at homes and at hospitals.
Would a different policy be likely to yield better results? For whom?
Apart from the National Aids Prevention and Control Policy, there might be other policies that will bring about better results for all involved parties such as the government, infected and affected people. Therefore, it is the responsibility of researchers as well as the government to look for new policies to supplement the existing one. For instance, the national and state governments in the country should plan to increase their commitment in the strengthening of HIV treatment, care and support for infected and affected people. This can only be done the expansion of policies as well as the policy initiatives in the country.
Are there appropriate resources available?
Even if a large percentage of people in India live in extreme poverty, there are appropriate resources for the implementation of the policy because the government has decided to provide the required resources. There are also Non-Governmental Organizations and Community Based Organizations which are ready to dedicate more resources to the prevention of HIV/AIDs. Therefore, there are enough and appropriate resources which will help alleviating the problem in condition that these resources are properly utilized.
Is the policy feasible and plausible (Can it be implemented? Does it make sense?) Why/Why not?
The National Aids Prevention and Control Policy is a plausible and feasible policy because its objectives are similar to the ones for various international health policies regarding HIV/AIDs. It is plausible because it fully supports the efforts of reducing discrimination and stigma against people affected by HIV and ensuring their equal access to social welfare, health and educational services. If implemented well, the problem of HIV/AIDs will be a history in the country.
What are the strengths of this policy?
This policy has various strengths. For instance, it enhances the quality of programs that are able to reduce the transmission of HIV among people by providing strategic drug supplies, developing appropriate communication approaches and improving the monitoring systems. It is capable of dispelling various misconceptions that relates to transmission of HIV and prevention behaviors among the vulnerable group.
What are its weaknesses?
The state governments in India do not have adequate ownership of the HIV prevention programs. This challenges the implementation of the policy in some states because the state governments are failing to keep the national objective of the policy in view. Also, other diseases like TB’s programs are well implemented by district level societies. This is centrally to what happens to HIV programs and thus makes it difficult for the policy to be properly implemented.
In conclusion, there is much evidence that some policies have become successful in reducing HIV/AIDs preference among some groups in India. However despite to success of these policies, there are still many people infected with HIV and several parts of the country’s epidemic remain unnoticed. Just as the addressing of high preference groups, more attention is required for those one perceived to be at low HIV risk. Further, much has to be done to control through spread of HIV as well as reduce new infections. The development of National Aids Prevention and Control Policy in important opportunity of forging greater unity and leadership at all levels to support Indians to achieve access to HIV prevention and care.