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There are major reasons that make juveniles to join gang groups. There exist some forces of push and pull that attracts them into gang. They may be attracted by their peers so that they can enjoy the prestige and excitement that goes with it especially by making money through the sale of drugs. The push factor consists of economic, social and cultural forces that make them see as if the gang is the place to be. Among the family variables that, lack of biological parents, poverty, low parental care and absence3 from school bring a very high probability of the children joining the gang (Samaha, 2005).

Most battered women usually find themselves back to their matrimonial homes even after being mistreated for some reasons. These women fail to leave even after mistreatment because of fear, lack of resources to sustain themselves, they also consider the welfare of their children, promise by their tormentors to change, strong love existing with their spouses, religious beliefs and cultural values.

            There exist more blacks than white in prisons because the blacks are believed to commit serious crimes more frequent than the white (Pearl, 2000). Another reason is the racial discrimination on the death penalty where you find that more out of a given sample; more blacks are likely to be executed as compared to the whites for the same murder charge.

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A variable is a logical attribute that can be changed such as a value or a characteristic. They are mostly used in psychological experiments to establish whether a change in one thing may affect the other. There are independent (a variable that is controlled by the experimenter himself) and dependent (a variable that is affected by the change in independent variable). The minimum condition required to determine causality between two items is the use of Hills criteria of causation. It simply provides an extra valuable measure of by which evaluation of more theories and explanations proposed with social sciences (Sussman and Gilgun, 1996).

 For example, in the hypothesis that cigarette smoking causes diseases, the relationship between smoking and causes of diseases, smoking is the independent variable while dependent variable (Burgess, 1986).

The conditions to expose the experiment in are;

We can assume a temporary relationship where a certain component assumed to cause the disease implied must be present thus making clear that it must be present.

We may conclude that the strength of the relationship determine the correlation of the two given factors.

By varying the size of the dose, we are able to det5ermine at what specific point the causal relationship starts. The incidence of the disease should be rejected if the exposure of the disease is found to be caused by other factors (Hawking and Israel, 1979).

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