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Civil rights and civil right movements paved way in the United States to eliminate discrimination. African Americans were discriminated in many areas. In work places, they did not get higher ranks that the whites even if they had better ability. Black teachers were not allowed to teach in white in schools set for white children. Schools on the other side were segregated for the black children. This discrimination made a group of blacks to protect against segregation of schools. The case of "Brown V. Board of Education" rose based on the segregation found within school systems. Thirteen parents of students attending the Topeka School were the plaintiffs represented by Brown. The hope of the plaintiff in filling the suit was for the school district to change its racial segregation policies (Williams & Byrne, 2005). The parents who were plaintiffs in this case attempted to enroll their children in schools close to their homes. The children were denied enrolment on the bases that they had to enroll in school constructed for the African American children.
The parents felt this discrimination to be a bother. This was because the white students were separated from the black students within schools that were public (Patterson, 2002). Many states had established laws that isolated schools of white students from those of black students. The parents of these children that were denied enrolment filled the suit at district level, but the court ruled against them. The court argued that they were required to take their children in rural areas where the blacks' schools were established. Schools were built near all public projects for blacks and they were required to take their children to those schools (Patterson, 2002).
The argument was that these schools were equal with those constructed for the white children, but had to be separate. This separation made children inferior and affected their motivation to learn. Brown the plaintiff wondered why they did not want the white and black children to mix if everything was set with the same standards. There were no Americans teachers for African American and the black teachers that wanted to teach in white schools were not allowed. They felt so much discriminated and this was intimidating for them. The case was taken to the Supreme Court and was combined with other four similar suits (Williams & Byrne, 2005). The ruling of the case against discrimination led to fight and riots that were severe. Many people were injured and others lost their lives.
The case made those laws that segregated the black and white children to be pronounced unconstitutional (Patterson, 2002). The decision of this case overturned other existing decisions that segregated schools. It was a decision that favored the blacks, but the white citizens had to bear with it. All schools opened doors to all children across the public without considering the race any more. There was enrollment of students of all races in any public school. The ruling of the case also made way for civil rights movement, which integrated across the states.
The Civil right act of 1964, established that state government even in the Deep South, not to discriminate against African Americans or anybody else (Bullard & Bond, 1994). This was because black Americans were discriminated in every way, since their residential areas were set far away and made to do chores that the white undermined and valued less. There were restrictions that prohibited gender and minority from discrimination in work places. They had to give the whites first priority when it came to thing like transportation and their children schooled in segregated schools for the blacks. White victims and prisoners were treated much better than the blacks (Patterson, 2002). This made Civil rights activists more strength to risk their lives to fight discrimination with the support of law.
Anyone that attacked these activists became a lawbreaker punishable by law. This led to authority possession by congress, which banned discrimination in public accommodation, employment and in any other place. The congress had the responsibility to regulate commerce in various states according to this act (Bullard & Bond, 1994). This was all in the effort of fighting undermining some traders just because they were blacks. Introduction of this act provoked a great nation political contest, which at the end made the nation whole by laying irrelevant differences aside. At the end of it all, most of the people realized that discriminating people based on their color, races, religion, gender, or nationally did not benefit the state or society in whatever way. The springs of racism had to close and prayer to be made for clear understanding and wise hearts (Bullard & Bond, 1994).
Courageous people like plaintiffs in the case of Brown V. Board of Education enlighten others to fight against discrimination. Federal government received the right to prohibit and end segregation in all public places. Federal government by doing this helped in eliminating discrimination in the work places. The federal government to control contractors established rules. Federal rules also govern and regulated all companies that contracted federal government for contracts and funds. A segregationist company could not receive funds or federal contracts (Marable, 2011). On the other side, the president had declared that despite all the hopes and pride the nation would never be free as far as its citizens were not free (Williams & Bond, 1988). This was for the quest for freedom for all men. This meant that all citizens had to be released from the bondage of discrimination. Additionally, for the sake of enforcement of the decisions of the ruling in the case of Brown V. Board of directors, people in authority had to stand firm on the decision. This was because that was the only way to enforce those decisions of eliminating and prohibiting discrimination, which is the major issue of the act 1964.
After the 1964 civil act, the 1965 voting right act followed. White racists launched campaign opposing the success of having African Americans being registered for voting (Marable, 2011). The campaigns caused violence that had resulted in civil right act, which led to the introduction of voting right act. The African Americans were empowered and their rights protected. The right to vote had to be established on the bases of uniform standards of voting. The legislation stated had to prevail these standards. In the 1968, another act of civil right was passed to prohibit discrimination. Vietnam War had traumatized the society, which prohibited racism under any circumstance. Calling the African Americans names such as Negroes and prohibiting them to be involved in businesses sales among others were not tolerated. Citizens were warned against discriminating black Americans from participating in businesses and trade. Therefore, no one willing to sell property was allowed to categorize the buyer.
Executive orders obliged government contractors for affirmative action to guarantee nondiscriminatory employment practices. Historically, minority and women discrimination was acceptable and required governmentally (Curry, 1996). White supremacy doctrine supported slavery institutions, which was part of policy and custom in America. Women and other racial minorities got discrimination by receiving treatment that suggested that they were not full citizens. Nation's top contractors in defense employed few African Americans, women, and minorities (Curry, 1996). Executive order 1965 came and prohibited subcontractors, federally assisted construction, and federal contractors doing over $10,000 of government businesses within one year from discrimination. These were discriminations in whatever manner concerning employment decisions of hiring and firing. The executive order obliges the government to ensure affirmative action is taken in guaranteeing equal opportunity in employment of citizens despite their race, religion, color, or national origin.
Additionally, contractors with more than fifty employees and contracts of more than fifty thousand dollars were required to apply affirmative action plans with the aim of increasing minority and women participation in work places. They had to have a greater percentage of women and minority compared to other corporate. Executive order helped in ensuring equal opportunities and flexible goals for all people. Every person in a company had to receive equal opportunity based on his ability despite his color, race, gender, or nationality. This means that the affirmative action governed corporate and companies in employment bases. Executive order also eliminated all sort of discrimination.
On the other hand, affirmative action plan helped in analyzing the utilization of minorities and women in major job groups. It explained necessary steps to be taken to meet set goals and described the internal auditing for successful plan. It also gave the commitments that were followed as guidelines for sex discrimination and employment test that could conform to equal and uniform selection of employees. Never the less, Federal Contract compliance officials and labor department could never be denied access to records and relevant information relevant for determining compliance to affirmative action.
Companies that wanted to fight discrimination used affirmative action and were able to address thinking that impeded opportunities in employments. A survey by DOL showed quick advancement of women in contractor firms compared to non-contractor ones. Executive order greatly changed the corporate climate through federal contractors. Corporate that received federal contracts and funds were required to employ minorities and women without discriminating them. Executive order also ensured that applicants seeking employment were employed without discrimination (Sowell, 2004). Jobs vacancies of Corporate were posted and announced to the public and their recruitment was a serious business that did not rely on mouth recruitment. On the other side, corporate became more sensitive to issues of sex and race intimidation and addressed them. Executive order allowed employers to open their minds to the ability of the employees and not their disability.
Years before 1954 many African Americans were discriminated everywhere even in the work places. Children were segregated in public schools. Many blacks were brutally beaten, shot to death, and dumped all on the bases of discrimination. When the High Court ruled against Board of Education in the case of Brown V. Board of Education, Segregation in public schools was made unconstitutional. The ruling of the case paved way for desegregated large scale. Separation of educational facilities was made unequal in itself. In 1954, Civil rights changed with time and advancements were achieved over the years since 1954. Civil rights movements in American have improved the quality and value of life for minorities that were underrepresented. It helped in eliminating the inferiority that racist had affected the Africans American
In 1957, had not sunk well into the racist people, therefore required the civil right activist to conduct their struggle based on dignity and discipline. Integration had not been achieved, since nine students had been denied admission to his school because of their color. Protests against discrimination were experienced in large numbers. In 1960, young black students in Shaw University get places in the movement of civil rights through the support of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. This committee grew radically into an organization that was more influential. A year later most of the volunteer students took bus trips through the south where segregation in interstate was prohibited. They were attacked along the way by angry mobs. After James Meredith, a black student got enrollment into the university, violence and riots rose. The present was forced to send federal troop, which arrested Martin Luther King. Civil right movements were forced to seek sympathy using police dogs, fire hoses, and black demonstrators that were brutal.
In 1963, four girls attending Sunday school got killed in a bomb explode in a Baptist church that was a popular meeting place for civil rights movements. This attracted riots and two black youths died. These and other discrimination led to the establishment of executive order by the president to strengthen the civil rights law and for the first time affirmative actions were enforced. Government contractors were required to take affirmative action in all aspect of employment in hiring minority employees. . In 1964, three black civil rights workers were reported to be missing after being shot to death. This meant that even though the congress had passed civil rights bill earlier in 1957 and 1960, measures taken over it were ineffective and weak. In 1965, many people were assassinated based on discrimination by color, race, or nationality (Marable, 2011). In the same year, the president Lyndon Johnson responded to the violence experienced in Alabama by proposing a law that struck restricted voting. He also intervened in facilitating a demonstration and made sure that the protestors were protected. He was enthusiastic in ensuring that civil rights were implemented and the movements protected.
The period between 1966 and 1970 marked a decline in civil rights movements. In the former period, leadership of national African American were able to preserve organizational strength and take advantage of political chances to boost consciousness of many people's participation (Dierenfield, 2008). Federal government had the willingness to support the civil rights movement through opposition control, but its leadership was not able to reconcile their differences. They prevented the African Americans from making progress in their movement. Additionally, shrinking in Grand Rapids of local political opportunities made the decline of civil rights era worse. This made the African American community lack optimism over civil rights movements even on local levels (Dierenfield, 2008).
In the 1980s, civil rights restoration act was passed by the congress, with the aim of reaching nondiscriminatory laws. These included private sectors that were receiving federal funds. Private firms that received federal funds and contracts were restricted and prohibited from any form of discrimination. Noncompliance with the affirmative action would make them loose the contracts and funds from the federal government. In 1990s, President Bush signed civil rights act of 1991 to strengthen the existing ones and provide for damages in those cases where there was intentional employment discrimination. It was a new mark of strengthen civil rights and the movements. In 2008, Senator Edward made the introduction of the civil right act of 2008. The civil right act stated that there would be no federal funds used to promote discrimination. The funds would not be used to improve responsibility for any form of civil right violation of workers' rights. It also held that the public funds would not be used to hold employers responsible for discrimination on the bases of age.
In conclusion, civil rights act were a rebirth to a better society with a sense of freedom. Racism should be curbed at all cost, since it affects the national economy and social well-being of citizens through discrimination. Opportunities are denied to potential people and given to unskilled or people without the necessary ability. This degrades the production in companies and draws the economy down. Additionally, especially companies that would have done better but failed in the past because of this discrimination lose potential opportunities. Potential investors fear to put their money in companies based on the performances of the past. Other traders after instigating the company feel unsatisfied especially after encountering delegates of a company who seem unsure or lack the competence. Competence plays a major role in attracting business and trade that color and race would do.
Never the less, companies that employ minorities and women may seem to be less productive on those bases, but attract many contractors for their ability to recognize ability and shutter down inability. Federal government contract, for example, are given to such companies. Therefore, eliminating discrimination and focusing of the potentiality and the ability of an individual would be more necessary. Racism should be understood that it is a thing that has no benefit. Additionally, people discriminated have more experiences due to the perseverance they have to go through day after day. This means that the discriminated minority groups have something to deliver; thus, they should be given an opportunity. Civil rights acts should be made stronger time after time to ensure discrimination is allowed within the nation. On the same note, discrimination should not be ignored since it could give rise to more social problems. Additionally, the law should protect civil right activists so that they can work effectively to curb the problem of discrimination.
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