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Criminology of a place or environmental criminology refers to a standpoint that reinforces the significance of geographic location and architectural and their association to occurrence of criminal victimization (Schmalleger, 2008). Causes of crime have found a relationship with various ecological approaches that substantially contribute routine activities theory and mitigation of the crime. This theory shows the role of geographic location in increasing crime incidences.
Briefly Describe Rodney Stark's Theory of Deviant Neighborhoods and the Broken Windows Theory of Policing.
Rodney Stark formulated the theory of deviant neighborhoods to explain why people stay in areas of high crime and deviance prevalence despite a complete turnover in their populations (Schmalleger, 2008). According to Rodney, high crime areas have a unique feature that promotes crime. The theory proposes that population density of the density determines how homes are crowd. Crowded homes have a tendency of assembling homes resulting in circumstances that increase the levels of temptation. Rodney further acknowledges that crowded homes have lower child supervision, which might lead to development of criminal behaviours.
The theory of broken windows by Rodney holds that physical damages such as unrepaired buildings deteriorate personal safety among area residents (Schmalleger, 2008). This raises anxiety that further reduces maintenance, and increase vandalism, crime and delinquency. The total physical deterioration attracts law-breakers from other neighborhoods because of the increased susceptibility. High crime rates, which forces people to stay indoors and notifies the aspiring offenders about the uncontrollable state of the neighborhood, erupts if the physical deteriorations are left unchecked (Schmalleger, 2008).
What Implications do these Theories Hold for Residents in these Types of Areas?
The interpretation of the theories holds that locations predict criminal behavior as a lifestyle of victimized people or social aspects of the affected families (Schmalleger, 2008). Places might be criminogenic because of repetitive activities linked to them. Moreover, the physical characteristics of an area determine the prevalence of crime. Prevalence of certain kinds of crimes has drastically reduced due to the realization of the criminology of a place by the police.
Concept of Defensible Space
The concept of defensible space indicates that crimes are common at distinct locations such as blocks, streets and multiple family homes within perceived high-crime locations (Schmalleger, 2008). This implies that the residents combine various mechanisms such as real and symbolic barriers, enhanced chances of surveillance and strongly defined influential areas to control the environment.