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Following a brief summary about the provided text, it argues that ancient writings and literature were based more on memory rather than knowledge, and were the foundation of creativity in the writers. That is the held hypothesis, which is hard to change, as the past is considered sacred. By contrast, the future and in the current times, literature such as novels is determined by experience, practice and knowledge, which is basically learning. Epistemology (study of knowledge) has therefore with time become an important and dominant discipline, because the novel has become the dominant genre, and novels are generally based on knowledge and experience.

The epic past has also been referred to as the "absolute past", reason being in both monochromic and valorized (hierarchical) forms of writing, there is lack of relativity, that is, any gradual evolutions/ progressions that might connect the past with the present. This makes the cycle rigid. It creates a boundary between the present and the past. Removing this boundary will result to demolishing epic (a collection of ancient poetry) as a genre on its own. But since the genre has been protected from being broken to link the past with the present (and future), then the genre is protected, absolute and complete, and has no room for openness. In this case, temporal and valorized meanings are joined into one. A temporary valorized ancient past is therefore characterized by an absolute conclusiveness and closedness.

Tradition also has a relationship with the epic past in the essence that it preserves the past. This is again achieved through common but unquestionable beliefs that are the core foundation of tradition. Epic fully relies on tradition, the same way absolute past does. This is to mean that the epic nature of the absolute past cannot be experienced, analyzed or felt. It is taken individually to be standing sacredly on its own. Another literary skill that was used and is now the most dominant is the novel-writing. It started in the ancient times and developed from a broad and varied field of literature. Initially in the Greek community, it later spread to other European regions and has seemed to take a strong foundation and remain dominant over many decades.

In the above text, the most important thing to note is the componential characteristics of epic as a genre, and not the facts about the origin of epic. From my analysis, I would conclude that the text exhaustively looks at different angles from which we can look at epic, and explains distinctively the difference between ancient and present literatures, thereby agreeing with other theoretical texts.

 In the book Tess of the D'Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy, the general plot theoretically conforms to the earlier given text. The book is about two lovebirds, Tess Durbeyfield and Angel Clare. They meet after both of them had gone through bad experiences in the past, concerning their sexual lives. Tess had been raped by her former employer and Angel had had an affair with her godmother, whose diamonds gifts he gives to Tess after their wedding. This is the time they learn about each others' former sexual lives and they decide to take time off their newborn wedding. Later, Tess kills Alec, the man who raped her, since she claims that he brought the difference between her and Angel, the man who truly loved her, and she is consequently imprisoned.

The book theoretically satisfies the definition of a novel writing, which generally revolves around creativity; this is even seen in the way the book starts, "On one evening in the later part of May, a middle aged man was walking homewards from Shaston to the village of Marlott, in the adjoining Vale of Blakemore or Blackmoor"( T. Hardy, p1). The book takes more of a literary than a poetic approach and this is evident with the fact that the book is written in continuous prose.

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