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This paper will provide a review of three different companies using different perspectives. The companies reviewed are in different industries. The review will mainly focus on the planning, leading, organizing and controlling (PLOC). These are factors which determine the growth of the company regardless of the industry in which the company has its operation. The review will cover Toyota, Google and Nokia. These companies are leading multinationals and are market leaders in most of the areas in which they have their operations. This paper will look at the PLOC of the companies to determine their working so as to determine factors that may be leading to their success. After analysis of the PLOC the paper will then centre on one company and explicitly explain its PLOC. 

Planning is the process in which an organization sets objectives and follows it up with establishing actions which will lead to the achievement of the objectives (Carpenter, Bauer and Erdogan p 10). There are three different types of planning

Leading refers to the social and informal sources that an organization or manager may use to inspire other employees to inspire them to take certain steps which are beneficial to the organization. This mainly focuses on increasing the motivation of the employees to enable them have increased output (carpenter Bauer and Erdogan p 11)


Organizing refers to the process which ensures resources are properly allocated to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the company (carpenter 10). The way an organization is structured determines whether the objectives of the company will be achieved or not.

 Controlling is the process in which the organization ensures that the actions taken by the employees do not deviate from the standards which the company has set (carpenter Bauer and Erdogan p 11)

Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937. This company's main business is the manufacture and sale of automotives. Toyota is based in Japan but has other subsidiary companies in many parts of the world. The subsidiary companies are mostly involved in the assembly of automotives. However, the general designing of the automotives is done in Japan, the native home of the company. Toyota is the market leader in the world in terms of sales of automotives. Toyota produces well engineered vehicles which are cheap and usually environmentally friendly.  

Toyota uses lean manufacturing to produce its automotives. This method involves the use of the available resources to create high quality products using less time. This method of organization is among the main strengths that makes Toyota a leading automobile company. Toyota also holds a competitive advantage over its competitors in the time it takes from designing the vehicle to its production. Toyota takes an average of 15 months compared to the average of the motor vehicle industry of 24 months. In fact it has in reduced the time to 10 months in a certain instance (Morgan and Liker 2006 p 7). The reduced production time is mainly as a result of proper planning of the organization. Among the main factors that make Toyota defeat its competitors its ability to develop high quality vehicles faster, at a cheaper cost and with more profit margins than most of its competitors. This enables it to launch more varieties of high quality vehicles which meet the demand of its consumers globally (Morgan and Liker 2006 p 11).

Toyota also uses a different form of leadership compared to other companies. The company uses chief engineers who are accountable to the development of the final product. These engineers help develop team work in the company thereby enabling it to provide high quality products. The chief engineer is responsible for production of the vehicle right from the designing up to the time the vehicle is released to the market (Morgan and Liker 2006 p 120). This way the company does not inspect the quality of the products after completion but it instead incorporates the quality in the production system therefore ensuring that the product quality is guaranteed (Liker 1997 p 5). The chief engineer acts as a leader and his abilities determine the quality of the final product. Therefore, for one to be a chief engineer he must have developed within the company. The period taken is at least 12 years while the person being groomed to be a chief engineer (Morgan and Liker 2006 p 119).

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Nokia     

Founded in 1865 as a company dealing with rubber, paper and cables, Nokia has revolutionalized the telecommunications industry and is the market leader in the sale of mobile phones and related devices. Nokia's vision is "connecting people". According to the number of mobile phones sold, the company has surely connected people and in 2005 Nokia sold its billionth mobile phone (company website- the story of Nokia). The dominance of Nokia is as result of strategic planning by the organization. Nokia regularly introduces new types of phones into the market. After every six months the management picks around 400 people and entrusts them with coming up with ideas on certain themes which will benefit the company. These may range from software development, technology to the future markets which the company should target.  These themes are decided by the management. This team is responsible for the devising of plans which ensure the company's future (Lewis et al 2006 p 344). The organization structure of Nokia also enables easy implementation of the ideas of the employees. The company's main segments are usually split into several small units and each unit is entrusted with the creation of the new ideas or innovations. The units create their own business models to ensure that their actions are profitable and since the number of people in the group is small implementation of the ideas is made much easier (Lewis et al 2006 p 344). The unit is also responsible for the quality control of the product.

Nokia has among the best leadership styles in the corporate world. Nokia encourages self leadership among the employees so that they may be accountable to their actions. The organization also provides several leadership management and leadership development programs to help the workers to improve their leadership skills and hence serve the company even better. Nokia has extended this leadership model to teams within the organization with excellent results (Avery 2006 p 156). Self-leadership improves the motivation of the employees, as they are accountable to their actions.

This paper will mainly focus on the third company under review. The company is a management model of various organizational practices and therefore a deeper analysis of the company is required to determine the strengths of the company. Founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google is the leading search engine in the world. Google has revolutionalized corporate management with various initiatives which were seen to be impracticable by other organizations. Company mission: to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful.

The company's continued success is mainly due to the way the company invests in its employees. The employees' work life in the company resembles that of an academic institution with very many smart and young technologists who are constantly engaged in innovation works (Jones 2008 p 131). To attain this company provides several recreational facilities to the employees. The company has a basketball pitch and even a massage parlor for the employees of the company. This enables Google to not only get highly qualified employees but also retain them. In fact the company was named as the best place to work in by fortune magazine in 2007 (Jones 2008 p 138). Google also has an organization culture which promotes innovation and there are usually no politics on who owns a certain idea (Jones 2008 p 134). The innovation is collectively owned by the employees and every employee's idea is considered in improving the final product. Google also has a 20 percent policy which allows the employees to have one full day of the week to work on an innovation of their own (Jones 2008 p 131). This further underlines the culture of innovation in the company and improves the motivation of the company's employees.

Another factor which leads to the strength of Google is the company's ability to make decisions quickly. This is necessitated by technological changes which occur rapidly in the industry in which Google operates. The organization ensures that inventions which are made by the employees as facilitated by the technological changes are speedily implemented. The company sometimes even tests the product on the Google site and depending on the reaction by the users they modify the product accordingly to suite the needs of the consumers of the product. The reduced delay due to the bureaucracy enables Google to come up with new products at a faster rate compared to other companies hence effectively outcompeting them (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor 2009 p 167). The company makes decisions just as "fasts as the speed of its internet search engine". The management also incorporates the other employees in the decision making of the company and any employee is free to attend any meeting of the company and offer his views which may be implemented (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor 2009 p 167). Google has also set standards for its software products. The products must meet specific standards and must be customer oriented. However due to the nature of the organization culture the company does not have so much bureaucracy. This enables the employees to come up with liberal ideas which help improve the company's products. However before the implementation of the products the employees of the organization sit in a meeting to discuss how the product will be implemented. Any employee can propose amendment to the product before the board further decides if the implementation will tae place (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor 2009 p 167).

Future challenges facing Google

Google has already started making its software applications so that it does not rely on the users' visit on the search engine. The development of the smart phone has also made Google invent software which is applicable to the mobile devices. In fact Google was the first company to come up with a software application which can be installed in the smart phones, the "android".  The diversification of the company's services may seem to a good move; however the diversification may lead to reduced revenue in some parts of its operation. Notably the Google search engine as most people associate the company with the search services. Moreover the company's vision is to organize the world's information and make it accessible to everyone. By venturing into the software development, the company would be deviating from its mission. Due to the large size of the organization, the company is also likely to be tempted to involve in evil deals so as to beat competition, which is stiff.

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