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Booking system is the reservation software designed for allocating room discounts in a business entity.  It utilizes a shell system software tool which is unique structure that uses knowledge in reasoning like a human being. It is the knowledge-based system that simply uses human knowledge to perform complex activities. Through use of booking system, guests can find the marketing site from diverse areas such as Google or Yahoo thus make reservations that offers them better discounts. The system uses data or rules commanded to it within the computer system by a human being. Many of the expert systems are developed through a specialized system known as the shells. The shells are equipped with a backward or forward chain mechanism. These mechanisms employ a specified format in feeding the knowledge in to the system. The shells use varied languages though with a narrow application range than most of the programming languages.

In the booking system, the knowledge engineer uses the shell system in allocating and making room preservation for clients. They use the system in organization to manage resources and clients can book resources wherever they are in all different parts of the world. Thousands of users especially travel industries use expert system in booking rooms for their clients. The room booking system consists of specialized software system for managing and controlling reservations, fixing rates, providing discounts and allocating rooms in many big hotels globally (Resort Data Processing, 2011). The room booking system has made life easier, because it provides varied simplified solutions to the problems. The expert system has enabled better maintenance and control preservations of hotel rooms.

Moreover, the booking system that allocates room discounts is designed in a way that permits authorities to manage and control room preservations well. Some of the hotels have a unique room booking system that enables one to hypnotize with the assortment of options (Mintel International Group Ltd, 2010).  The system enables the user to advance room abilities, packages and provide better transactional reports. The room booking system has a software system, which is infused with other varied special characteristics for reservation forms preparations. They provide customers with protection passwords, as they check for room availability and access for room booking options.

It is easy to incorporate the booking system software into the travel site. The online room booking system is completely secure. This is because it has the ability to administer numerous rooms for visitors without making any error in the preservation process. Many business firms, especially the travel industries analyses their sales through use of the expert system. The room booking system uses features that allow an online administrator, which facilitates easy and direct room booking. Moreover, the room booking system features are placed online by travel firm administrator. Therefore, it allows individuals to make any necessary changes, thus getting the required information being updated without any assistance by web designers.

Designing and building a rule based expert system shell requires a critical process. The rule based system is a conservative problem solving computer program, which uses well structured algorithms, data and crunchy analysis in finding solutions to the problems. It solves difficult problems, thus making it easy for experts to come up with proper solutions. The rule based system utilizes human knowledge in solving real world difficult issues, which requires human intelligence. The rule based system is usually presented inform of data or rules set within the computer system (Donald, 2001). The data and rules can be used to solve the problems, but this depends on the required problem. The rule based system plays a vital role in the contemporary intelligent system and applications in planning, designing, scheduling and monitoring activities carried out in an organization.

Moreover, the rule based system upholds a separation of the system parts from the knowledge base system, thus executing the rules, which is usually known as the expert shell system. The shell system becomes indifferent to the rules it performs. This is crucial, because it is an indication that the system can be applied to various domain problems with or without any change to the system. Making modifications or adding some changes to the can cause effects on the changes made to the program without affecting the shell system. The language used in expressing the rule is closely linked to the language subject issue. The experts use language subject issue in describing the problem, thus providing solutions. When the experts are designing the rule using the subject matter, they are creating the written record to the problem at the same time, which can be shared with others.

The expert system used in room booking has typically two components including the knowledge base as well as the expert shell system. The expert shell system is a component, which solves the problem independently. It is a housing facility for editing, generating and executing rules. The shell part haws the software, which performs varied work. First, the subject issue experts use the shell in creation support and business rule modifications. The shell interpret the business rules into a machine readable way and it executes the business rules. Lastly, the shell software helps in retrieving metadata file system from a knowledge base system

The expert systems for room booking are designed in order to cope with a problem, which is unable to be solved with the conventional computers. This is because the solutions depend upon the human knowledge and the human experts’ inferential reasoning capacity (Rajendra, 2001). Therefore, designing a rule based expert system for room booking through use of shell requires fundamental processes. First, an expert system is developed through use of conceptual framework, which represents the major problem domain. The knowledge decomposition is supported by the structures that leads to rule and data creation. The rules developed are well presented through a knowledge based system and analysis for some concepts done in order to provide the required solutions. A typical approach for delivering multiple language applications are produced and then localized for every targeted language. English is the common language used in knowledge based system, although other steps are used in delivering them into diverse languages.

Designing or building the rule base program is referred as the knowledge engineering. This is a process through which knowledge is integrated into the computer systems. The aim is to solve intricate problems, which require the highest level of human capability. In an expert system, three individuals involve in the interaction process.  One of them is the end user who uses the knowledge system in solving problems. Another one is the domain expert who designs the system as well as supplies the knowledge base. The last one is the knowledge engineer who helps the experts in determining the knowledge presented.  The knowledge engineer enters the knowledge into an explanation module, and thus defines the interface technique necessary for problem solving. The work of the knowledge engineer is to present the problem following the rules created from the domain expertise (Niwa, Sasaki and Ihara, 2002).

When designing and fixing a knowledge based program, the start consultation button is clicked in order to open the screen. The knowledge base is loaded into the system and syntax checked. In case the error occurs, the loading occurs immediately and the error digit is displayed on the screen. Additionally, the error may be displayed in the knowledge base in case a test is run. Therefore, it is vital to build a knowledge base by entering first few rules into at a time. This will help the knowledge base designer to avoid creating multiple errors. Another way of avoiding the error is running the debug parameter in the Applet tags in order to simplify the knowledge base containing an error. Actually, most of the debug or fixing errors are caused by punctuation or spelling errors.

Additionally, when designing and building a knowledge based program, it is advisable to perform the following in order to avoid errors. First, the attribute names should define the rules and the statements should be presented before the rules (Rajendra, 2001).  The designer can enter a prompt for an attribute in the knowledge base in advance by entering at least one rule, which uses the attributes at a time.  It is advisable to experiment the knowledge base together with the inputs, though adding each prompt and rule in order to identify the error in the logical analysis. It is imperative to use some test cases in order to identify the minor errors that may occur, when designing the system.

In case one was asked to repeat the task of designing or building a rule based expert system using an expert system shell in a room booking, the following procedures can be followed. First, designing a language for the rule is vital in room booking. One way of ensuring a successful room booking is executed well that the expert system is received well.  This will lead to successful rule language, which is easy for clients in learning and using them.  The rule language serves the need of the subject matter. The subject matter in turn requires a language, which impersonates the way individuals communicate, think and operate (Sussman, 2011). The lexical and syntax elements are the ones that make the language rule to appear ordinary as possible. The goal of rule language is to ensure that there is a balanced language being recognized by the translators. The language rule must have a simple grammar for better understanding. This means that the language used should be precise and have a consistent meaning. It should not have ambiguities nor become difficult to translate. It should be a natural language, because in natural language, words have their own meaning.

Designing a language rule is essential, because of varied reasons. One of them is that it will enable clients who want to book rooms be in apposition of interpreting data easily without any problems. This makes communication easier, thus contributing to successful business performance. Moreover, designing natural language, which is recognized by the translator, is crucial. This is because it enables the system experts to interpret the data or information well. Ambiguity language, which is difficult to translate, makes the verbal communication difficult to be interpreted, thus contributing to poor business performance. Thus, in order for administrator of a particular hotel management wants to achieve success in business, the expert system should ensure that the language is clear and simple.

The second step is generating the translator from the business rule grammar. This is where the subject matter experts translate the composed rules and stores in the knowledge base before it is being implemented. Therefore, the rule translator transforms the rule into a machine readable for translation, as indicated below in figure one below. The lexical pattern is created automatically from the rule grammar by the rule translator. The syntax and semantic languages are defined by the business rule grammar (International Conference on Recent Trends in Business Administration and Information Processing, BAIP and Das, 2010). The language constructs, especially the control and assignment statements, perform the semantic action in business rule grammar. In addition, the rule parser and the semantic action program are crucial when translating rule grammar. The rule parser receives token streams which are meaningful units in control and assignment statements. The rule parser invokes the semantic action, which is later dispatched by the parser, when it recognizes the language constructs of the rule grammar (Mintel International Group Ltd, 2010).

Designing and building a rule knowledge engine is another task that should be undertaken when in room booking system. This is a step whereby the rule engine is executed through use of knowledge based rules. Rule execution involves diverse steps. The first one is metadata retrieval from the knowledge base. Another step is creating a memory resident from a metadata rule. Additionally, questions are generated in order to provide values for every rule symbol. This is done through linking tables to the symbol tables. Lastly, operator nodes are used to perform specified actions. According to Bhattacharjee (2003), rule actions involve assigning values to an object and displaying information from the screen. When using the evaluation algorithm execution, the value can be moved by the rule engine from the left hand side to its destination. The rules are not magically eliminated, but they use a variety of programming methods, which is familiar to computer expertise.

The data can be tested through analyzing the knowledge base for accuracy as well as testing the interface engine. However, such analysis is limited to testing data, but the expert system can be tested through viewing the expert system for determining quality of its decisions. This is done basing on the set conditions or determining the reasons why the system made a particular decision to a given set of conditions.  There are diverse possibilities that exist when testing the knowledge base for accuracy, weight, testing inference engine and analyzing condition decision matches for quality decisions.

First, testing data is done to determine the knowledge base accuracy when making room booking system. Some Artificial Intelligence (AI) languages particularly the expert system shells are acquiescent to direct data testing. However, due to size and complexity, data testing of the knowledge base is not realistic. In order to produce realistic result when testing data, one has to determine, which rules should be examined basing on the characteristics of the knowledge base. Thus, the statistical choice can be made onto which kind of knowledge data need to be tested. Since knowledge is frequently used, it will be thoroughly validated. For instance, in case the statistics use frequency rules in hypotheses tests, those rules would be used in validation. On the other hand, the knowledge rule for validation through use of statistical methods can be used in testing data.

Secondly, the inference engine, which is an algorithm rather than knowledge can be tested, but the validation process may be dissimilar. Algorithms can be validated in three different ways including the tracing, testing data and carrying out a snapshot (Microsoft Corporation, 2004). Use of tracing method ensures that algorithm instructions are executed in appropriate way. Another way of data testing is whereby the algorithms are used in providing the correct results. This is done especially to a set of inputs whose solutions are known. The known results would then be used in testing algorithm as attesting data. Lastly, the snapshot does not test, but rather determines the elements of information available in the system in a single moment of time. The snapshot provides pertinent data, when the computer is processing a particular data.

Thirdly, the knowledge base weights can be entirely examined, but in most cases, data validation is analyzing according to the knowledge base. This may make the administrators to decide, which selected weights can be examined in the room booking system. The methods similar to the knowledge base accuracy can be used in data testing. The weights can be examined using certain rules, because they would not appear in the optimal solutions. Weight distribution can be examined to determine, if the weight has a normal distribution.  Therefore, the validator can examine further the weights to determine the extent to which they do not meet the distribution constraints.

Lastly, the knowledge base completeness is another possibility that exist when testing the knowledge base.  The knowledge base completeness is one of the techniques used in induction system. It is used in analyzing the rule base knowledge. Moreover, it determines the kind of rules being induced from the knowledge base. The induction system cannot provide any information about the knowledge base, thus it will not be discovered. Another system approach used in testing data for knowledge base is the contingency table. This table contains feasible conditions in rows and columns. The system experts examine the condition sets and whether the data list is complete. The flow charts are used in determining the knowledge base. The rule based system is developed through charting the sequence for each set condition (Pazek and Rozman, 2007).

The work was undertaken through validating the knowledge based system in an expert system in order to determine how far the knowledge base is useful in the room booking system (Schwartz, 2008). The knowledge can be revalidated, after new extra rules are added in the system. The test data can be used in determining whether the decision generated from the set conditions are the same after changes have been done to knowledge. Carrying out validation of expert systems is significant. Lack of appropriate validations may lead to errors, which would be costly. Different methods are employed, when making validating expert systems. The validation can be done through analyzing as well as testing knowledge base and inference engine independently. The researchers realized recently that validating expert system is crucial. This is because it will enable the expert data to process data and solve the problem easily. However, the methods for validation of the system have not yet been well known.

The problem analyzed was particularly suitable for a rule based system the system has to run because of varied reasons. First, the system allows realistic and meaning objective settings. Use of the rule based system is significant, because it enables originations, especially the travel industries, to achieve their objectives, which have become successful in business transactions. Through the use of the expert system, many travel organizations receive more clients when employing the method of expert system. This is because customers are able to make a booking system earlier enough. Moreover, payment is made earlier, thus contributing to better and more successful business performance.

Another reason why the system is suitable is that it stimulates new ideas as well as creativity. According to Schwartz (2008), advanced booking of hotel rooms in the contemporary society is widely used. The system is considered as imperative, because it is time and cost saving. Through use of the rule based system, many organizations have made work easier and they are able to make huge profits. This is because of employing the knowledge base system in making room booking and payment is done faster. Moreover, the system allows organizations to manage their resources effectively globally. Through Internet utilization, members can book resources from any place they are across the globe (Niwa, Sasaki and Ihara, 2002). The system can enable members to know who has booked for the available resources and who may need them in the future.

The system allows services comparisons functions as well as processes and encourages external focus. Members can make comparisons for the available resources they want through using the rule based system. The system is crucial, because the clients make booking in advance and this saves their time and cost of moving from one place to the areas of business location. Additionally, the system encourages external focus where after some comparisons have been made, an organization will make decisions to which sector to invest on. Clients can use the system in comparing the better place for spending their leisure. This is through using the rule based system, thus determining the best place to make preservations.

The software is suitable, because it has the capacity to utilize a substantial amount of information. The booking system is a useful application in hotels and travel industries, because it is a dynamic and versatile feature run in hotels and guesthouses. It is software simply designed for booking process and helps one smoothly manage the hotel effectively. The expert system, which employs use of rule base system, has a volume of knowledge and it helps in modifying or deleting rules. The rule based system helps in preservation and knowledge improvement, thus it is incorporated in the booking system.

Lastly, the system demonstrates improvements if possible. Many organizations, especially the travel firms and big hotels partner with Microsoft Outlook as well as the exchange server, allow users to locate their optimal resources easily. Many o the travel firms have their own website developed specifically for clients who may wish to use their resources. Thus, in case of any call for changes that may be required, adjustments are done. This is vital, because it helps the customers to meet their expectations. Thus, the knowledge base system is a vital tool for development in many organizations.

Summary of lessons learnt from performing the task

Designing or building a rule-based expert system using an expert system shell requires different processes. The rule-based system is crucial in many organizations, because they perform complex work in order to solve difficult problems thus providing solutions to them. From the above, the expert system used in room booking has typically two components including the knowledge base as well as the expert shell system. The expert shell system is a component, which solves the problem independently. This shell system is an important software tool, which helps in solving complex issues. In booking system, the system is designed in a way that permits authorities to manage and control room preservations well. Thus, from the expert system software, I have learnt many lessons on how the expert shell system works.

The shell system is crucial, because it helps solving complex problems by reasoning like an expert. They use the system in organization to manage resources and clients can book resources whenever they are in different parts of the world. Another lesson learnt is that the expert system, which also termed as knowledge engineering, integrates knowledge into the computer system thus solving intricate problems. This system is fundamental, because it performs difficult tasks thus providing solutions to the problems. System experts operate the system and it can produce errors in case of wrong use of punctuations or grammar. Thus, when handling the system, system experts should carry out validation. This is because lack of appropriate validations may lead to errors, which would be costly.

Designing or building a rule-based expert system using an expert system shell requires numerous steps, which are vital. The first one is the language for the rule whereby the language commanded to the system should be easy to be translated. Another one is the rule grammar generation whereby the data fed into the computer is required to be grammatically and punctually correct. In addition, the software is suitable, because it has the capacity to utilize a substantial amount of information, helps in making adjustments. The expert system is crucial, because it utilizes substantial amount information to produce results, it is reliable and it improves as well as preserves knowledge. Thus, many travel industries and big hotels employ the booking system in simplifying the booking process and ensuring that hotel control and maintenance are achieved.

In conclusion, the expert system is a knowledge-based system that simply uses human knowledge to perform complex activities. This system functions like a human being in solving complex problems thus provides solutions to them. In the booking system, the expert system uses the shell in allocating and making room preservation for customers. It is easy to incorporate the room booking software into the travel site. Designing and building a rule based expert system shell requires a critical process. This involves language for the rule, generating the translator from the business rule grammar and building a rule knowledge engine. The expert system used in room booking has typically two components including the knowledge base as well as the expert shell system. Additionally, the data can be tested through analyzing the knowledge base for accuracy as well as testing the interface engine. The booking system is vital to make comparisons for the available resources. Moreover, the system allows services comparisons functions as well as processes and it encourages external focus as well as ensures that adjustments are made, where necessary.

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