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Introduction

Technological growth and advancement has created a great paradigm shift in publishing industry worldwide. In this regard, International Travel Publication Company is not left out in this economic mix. However, the company is armed with a number of strategies geared towards its turn around to ensure that it enjoys economies of scale. In this daunting task, change is inevitable in the company since it will streamline the whole process of embracing new technology as a major tool for economic growth in the industry.

It is undisputable that print subscriptions are declining, but local newspapers will always be an authority on the news for their given geography. Newspaper reporting contributes to the vast majority of news. The Internet is just another medium and distribution method. And just as newspapers survived competition from radio and then television, print will survive the Internet.

The problems facing the print industry are not solely attributable to competition from traditional media, or from the Internet, but from its own inability to adapt to new media forms and to narrow its aim to selected customers and prospects for existing forms. Print media, and specifically newspapers, own the brand, their local advertising market, their local market knowledge and the information necessary to adapt to the changing environment, but they must focus on using technology to leverage these existing strengths.           

Change Management

Change management is an important business aspect that ought to be comprehensively implemented if business succession is to be applied. It is a response to business growth and development in an attempt to maintain management structure that is relevant to a given corporation. In this regard, change is inevitable for an organization which needs success in business operation; for instance the adoption of digital publication in place of books publication and distribution by International Travels Publication Company. “Change management in many occasions takes different forms and may include a number of change environments,” (Kotter, 2005). Change management may take different forms for example organizational change management needed to be carried out in ITP due to increase in staff members to run the online publication and digital sales. Hayes, (2007, p.33) illustrates, that “typically the objective is to maximize the collective benefits for all people involved in the change and minimize the risk of failure of implementing the change.”

In an organization, change management mainly involves human resource mobilization to institute the much needed change. Therefore, it should take into account the diverse opinion of all stakeholders at all levels of company operations. In this line, the leadership in an organization should be vigilant to ensure that there is no resistance to change by ensuring that everyone in the organization is made part of the adopted change. In other words, a successful change management program goes hand in hand with horizontal communication model between senior and junior staffs. Nilakant, and Ramnarayan, (2006, p.58) highlight that, “the change programs should be implemented, disseminated throughout the organization, monitored for effectiveness, and adjusted where necessary.” As such, all staffs will be readily prepared for potential changes and in this way, surprises resulting from job demotions or sucking could be justified.

Kotter Change Model

Kotter (2005) has developed out an eight-step strategy for change management in an organization and these steps include:

  1. Establish a sense of urgency for change.
  2. Create the guiding coalition for change.
  3. Develop a vision and strategy for change.
  4. Communicate the change vision to everyone in the organization.
  5. Empower everyone for broad-based action.
  6. Generate short-term wins.
  7. Consolidate gains and produce more change.
  8. Anchor new approaches in the culture.

Source; Kotter, (2010)

Change and Stress - The Principle of Adaptation

Change process normally comes with different reactions in an organization. These reaction and response to change could either be positive or negative. As a result, management and top leadership should work to avoid experiencing negative results and enhance positivity towards a peaceful transition period. There is a model that best address these key factors that is referred to as Principal of Adaptation.

Due to varying cultural scenarios there is a range of performance against time that was noted by Kubler-Ross and the representation is shown in the figure below, through analysis of the grieving process. The curve however shows anomalies that do not take place in the real sense. This is because most staff members ignore them.

Change Drivers in an Organization

Industry evolution 

Evolution normally comes up with new way of doing things. As a result, ITP Company in the publication industry must adopt changes brought about by industry evolution. In this case, industry evolution is the driving force which necessitate adoption of a change in business operation and management
Business Cycle 

The growth and development of an economy is a sign of positive change within an industry. In order to study this process, a business entity ought to factor in interpretation of economic indicators Economic indicators are classified into different categories. These include; the leading economic indicators, lagging and coincident.  This classification helps in the analysis of the economy in terms of business cycle. Business cycle calls for change in the operation of a given company. In the case of International Travel Publications online publication is becoming popular among most clients locally and internationally. The company is therefore compelled to shape up and face the new challenges brought by this change. In addition, this change is inevitable because of the relative low production and distribution costs witnessed in physical books production and delivery.

Competitive Structure

Competition is great incentive to change in an organization. In this case, completion in the market or an industry will precipitate change in a company. Towards this International Travel Publications will have limited option but to embrace change in its operation.

Rules and Procedures

Rules and procedure not only govern the operation of companies and organization in an industry but also defines what is required for a given company to be registered. These rules and procedures are changed often and it is therefore prudent for an organization to be ready to embrace change to conform to rules and regulation.

Global Economic Situation

Economic situation is always a change driver. For instance, global credit crunch may drive an organization to adopt change which not only make effective but also cut on expenses to ensure that it makes profit. These strategies may include downsizing.

Market Needs

 Market demand is one of the change drivers in an organization. Companies and organization normally respond to the requirement of the market. Towards this, change is inevitable to ensure that the company remains viable in the market.

The Force-Field Diagram

Force-Field Diagram is a simple tool that you can use to help yourself or other people resolve such problems by weighing up the pros and cons of the situation and coming to an agreeable, balanced conclusion. The force-field Diagram works through an initial identification of basis of arguments (opposition and proposition) which are diagrammatically represented on chart. According to (McCalman and Paton 2008 p.170)The Force-Field Diagram works by first identifying points for and against the argument and then organizing and displaying them visually in a diagram, as below.”

Incremental and Transformation Change

Change process and type of change being adopted in an organization is very important and towards this, an organization may choose either incremental or transformational type of change based on the desired objective of the organization. This is where the change process is introduces in bits and incorporated in the origination. It is very viable way of introducing change in an organization since it attracts less rejection. It is very easy to adapt to this kind of change in an organization (Walton, Nadler and Shaw 1995 p.133).

Transformational change normally overhauls the whole operation in an organization. It is good when an organization is adopting a complete different operational procedure in the company. According to Hayes, (2007 p. 132), “Built a career on being good at what he does, can’t throw it all away, difficult to convince, especially if close to retirement and enjoying running the show subset – professional executive.” These people should be convinced patiently to embrace changes process. Appreciating change is vital process in an organization (Nilakant and Ramnarayan, 2006 p.289). In this case, it is necessary for everyone to be made aware not only to the change process but also to benefits of the change. In this case, the employees will appreciate and find it easy to embrace change.

Multi-Directional Influences On Strategic HRM and Change

HRM has got immense influence in an organization. This has been possible because HRM practitioners use multi-directional strategies.HRM apply several skills such as persuasion skills, research skills among others to help them achieve their goal.According to McNamara, (2008 p. 47),persuasion plays a critical role in social influence in the business world.(2008p.54) further explains that, the main role of persuasion and team work is to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations to build models that incorporate the detailed, micro -level understanding of influence processes derived from focused laboratory studies but contextualized in ways that recognize how multidirectional, dynamic influences are situated in people’s social networks and relationships.     

Implementation of change is the most crucial part in change process in a company or organization. Towards this, International Travels Publishing Company should put all the available resources to ensure that this process is done effectively. Employees and all other staff need an appropriate training to ensure that they embrace change which is being adopted in the company. This will reduce the amount of stress employees normally when they are not adequately prepared for the change.

Motivation and Change

 “Motivation plays a critical role in human life” (Goncalves, 2007 p.34). In this regard, it is important that the same concept of motivation is applied in work place. This will go a long way in fulfilling job satisfaction in a company. Job satisfaction refers to the feeling or the state of mind that one has in regard to their nature of work. In can be influenced by a variety of factors such as work wellness programs within the workplace, employee relationship with top management and supervisors, ability to achieve their work targets, the quality of the physical environment in which one works.

Work has for centuries remained one of the most fundamentals tasks in life of a human being. Research focusing on the bio-psychosocial impacts of work satisfaction and dissatisfaction on the modern worker suggests that “one’s level of satisfaction with one’s work impacts upon one’s mental and physical health and overall satisfaction with life” (Ozaki, 1992 p.72). The philosophy is that in exchange for offering their services, employees are entitled to more than their pay, benefits and healthy and safe systems of work. Employees should also be entitled to consideration as human beings, especially when one considers that majority of their problems arise in the context of the work and are hence best dealt with there to achieve job high job satisfaction levels. According to (Ozaki, 1992 p.57) “the employees worries and resulting stress may well arise from their work and their concerns about security, money, health and relationships with others”. These form the general factors that determine and define job satisfaction.

In the realization that people form the most prized asset of any organizations, there is need to attach the greatest value to their well being for the best overall organizational performance organizational socialization refers to a  process where employees learn about and adapt to new jobs, roles and the culture of the workplace. The significance of orientation towards job satisfaction cannot be ignored because the level and quality of organizational socialization is directly correlated to the levels of job satisfaction

Change Management in International Travel Publications

 “Change reinforcement is important and inevitable in an organization” (Bush 2003 p.48).In the implementation of change, there is need for an introduction of strategies that not only help in the creation of awareness on the change being adopted but also reinforces it to ensure it ultimate success. In endeavor to reinforce change, communication is crucial at all level of change process (McCalman and Paton 2008 p.174)

Change Process Evaluation

According to Kotter’s, (2010 p.47), “before closing the change it is necessary to carry out an evaluation. This will allow the real impact of the change on the organization’s quality of service and productivity to be assessed.”This is necessary for a comprehensive assessment of possible outcome of change in an organization.

Change Agent: Deterministic Vs. Voluntarism View

Determinism holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by all the states of affairs that came before it. In other words, what happens next is completely fixed by what came before. Indeterminism holds that some states of affairs contain elements that were not necessitated by the previous states of affairs. In other words, what happens next is not completely fixed by what came before.

“Deterministic perspectives change agents have been common amongst commentators on communication technologies” (McCalman, and Paton, 2008). “Theorists who have argued that changes in communication technologies have had an important cultural impact have tended either to regard such changes as limited to social and institutional practices” (Goncalves, M., 2007 p.45) “Voluntarist stances can be somewhat naive in overlooking the issue of unpredicted, unintended consequences” (Ozaki, 1992 p.31).Voluntarism change agent is however good but deterministic is appropriate when change is urgently need in an organization.

The role of change agent is that they act as change catalyst in an organization. They create awareness of the change program as well as educating employees on the benefits which come with the adoption of the change process in the organization.

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