Free Main Principles of Management Essay Sample
Managers, in a bid, usually have to assume multiple roles in order to meet all the functions that their work demands of them. Roles are organized and pre-planned a set of behaviours. Management has a wide and massive set of duties. However, amid all these duties, every manager should strive to follow the four basic principles or functions of management, namely: planning, organizing, directing and controlling (Morgen 2003). This paper analyzes the managerial functions of Stevy and Jeff, the top management of Wulu Airport. The paper introduces the four managerial roles before tackling the problems the two managers are likely to face in performing their duties.
Planning is the first component of management. Here, the manager sets the goals of the organization and determines the course how to fulfil these goals. If a company has a vision or mission statement, planning is easier as it follows from this statement. The manager needs to set objectives for the set goal. In our case of Wulu Airport, the manager needs to come up with a sales and marketing plan. This function is the pillar of all other management roles (Morgen 2003).
Organizing involves giving the resources necessary for achieving the set goals. The management has to organize all its resources before putting into action the plan set in the planning stage. The management organizes the internal job configuration, organize job relationships and finally assign resources. At this phase, the management ensures that there is a uniform harmonization of the working force (Morgen 2003). The management decides which tasks need prioritization while at the same time ensuring that there is no wastage of resources.
Directing allows managers to supervise staff actions. While directing, the management helps the staff realize company`s goals while at the same time guiding them in achieving their career goals. Communication, motivation and leadership power this role (Gillis 2005). Highly motivated and encouraged employees usually surpass the management’s objectives. These employees are integral in achieving the company`s objectives. The management should come up with incentives to reward the best performing employees, and to encourage other underperforming employees. It is also vital to maintain healthy working relationships, a healthy working environment and involve the staff in decision-making (Cohen 2002). This is only possible, if the communication chain in an organization is effective.
Controlling is the last function of management. This is an evaluation and comparison phase. The management gauges the company's actual performance and then compares it with the set goals and objectives. This is in order to take preventive and corrective measures. This is a continuous process. The management should expect problems all the way. If the staffs do not reach their objectives, the management should re-evaluate the objectives in a bid to either reduce them, or provide more resources.
All these functions can be broadly categorized into informational, decision-making and interpersonal roles. The informational role ensures that there is enough information in the organization, while the interpersonal role ensures that there is a connection between all levels of management. The decision-making role ensures that the managers make the right use of the information they receive (Morgen 2003).
Managerial problems likely to be faced
The managers of Wulu Airport are likely to face several challenges in the performance of their duties. This is due to the functions that they have. It is one of their managerial plans to hit a passenger rate of at least six hundred and eighty-five daily. This presents the first obstacle in the performance of their duties. Targets are hard to hit, if there is no effective plan by the management. The plan might be too futuristic and unrealistic. The two managers, Stavy and Jeff, have to analyze critically their passenger records before coming up with the said goal. If previous passenger records do not approach their target of 685, then their plan is unrealistic and unachievable.
Secondly, these two are in the tourism industry. The tourism industry is highly seasonal. At certain times of the year, massive numbers of tourists can be headed for the island, and at other times the number of tourists can be extremely low. The two managers, therefore, have to analyze the tourism industry and try to come up with a perfect plan that incorporates the seasonal nature of the tourism industry. There should always be an alignment of a firm's goals and objectives. The goals of Wulu Airport are to have at least 685 passengers daily. The objectives of the management thus should be in line with this goal.
The employees of the airport seem to be overworked considering that the firm does not hire cleaning personnel. The management is, therefore, likely to face a problem in achieving its goals. The employees should identify with the goals of the organization. The employees of the airport are unlikely in a position to aid in achieving the goals of the airport, as they have other duties upon them.
Jeff is also going to face a control problem. Control requires that there should be a significant number of employees checking on the progress of the airport (Robert 2008). If the employees are kept busy somewhere else, control in the airport will be difficult. Jeff needs to ensure that there is a clear separation of duties in the organization. Also, he has to be aware that there are enough personnel in the control department. There are also no clear departments in the firm, which are likely to make management of the airport impossible.
There are contractual issues with the management of the city. This is a planning problem. The management needs to evaluate the original contract with the city officials in order to determine whether the right legal channels were followed while writing the contracts. It appears as though the deal was with the former city officials. The management of the airport did not forecast ahead to see this problem. One of the functions in planning is forecasting; something Jeff failed to do otherwise he could have seen this coming.
The managers are assuming an interpersonal role while trying to negotiate contracts with the two new airlines, Fly High and Wulu Express. Jeff, as the executive director, has to adorn the role of liaison officer of the company. This means that he has to represent and enter into contracts on behalf of the company. Jeff has to discuss with the management of both airlines and get the best contracts that benefit Wulu Airport. Jeff will also be making decisions regarding the company, and, therefore, is assuming a decision-making role.
One of the functions of management is to guide and direct the efforts of employees (Cohen 2002). Jeff must work with the employees to ensure that the employees provide the best customer service to the passengers. Jeff is assuming an internal, interpersonal role. However, unlike above where he is a liaison, here he acts as a leader. It involves direct leadership. He has to establish relationships with the subordinates. Jeff is also assuming an informational role, as he has to collect information from passengers regarding their level of satisfaction. Jeff then, together with his employees, must use this information to improve service delivery in the airport. Jeff assumes the role of directing the efforts of the employees.
Jeff is assuming a decision-making role while resolving the impasse with the city officials. He has to ensure that the officials understand that the airport is bringing a lot of money to the city. There is the issue regarding the constitutionality of the agreement between the airport and the city. Jeff has to decide whether to take the matter to the court or solve it outside the court. He also has to decide whether to involve the expertise of a lawyer in the negotiations. Jeff has to decide whether to accept or reject proposals from the city officials.
Needed managerial skills
Jeff is constantly dealing with both employees and the outside world. He is assuming the figure of liaison as well as a leader of the employees. His communication skills should be high. The manager needs to have a substance in what he is saying (Cohen 2002). Jeff should know how to convince the city officials to take their deal. As he is constantly communicating with the employees, he should learn how to relate with them well. His interpersonal skills should be high. Jeff should also be a skilled listener to ensure that he incorporates employees’ ideas into his work.
Jeff also needs to be empathetic towards the employees. He should feel and understand the needs of the employees. Empathy is also highly vital, when dealing with customers. Jeff needs to show his customers that he understands their needs and cares for their wellbeing. Jeff should be a true leader, someone the employees can rely on in difficult times. He should also be confident with a high level of self-assurance in making decisions that deal with healthcare of the company.
Change is paramount in any organization that is planning to grow. The world is growing at an astronomical rate especially in the technology industry. Airport practices that were useful several years ago are now obsolete. Full automation is a phenomenon of many airports across the world. However, not all employees are for automation as some of them are not knowledgeable in technology.
In countering change resistance, Jeff should assure the employees that their jobs are safe. He should assure employees likely to lose their jobs that the company will compensate them. Change should also be gradual. Training and education are also vital in order to ensure that the employees welcome the change. He should make the employees want the change. This means that he should not force change (Kotter 2011).