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International market is a global place where many countries sale and buy products such as food, clothes, spare parts, oil, jewelry, wine, stock, currencies and water. International market provides services like tourism, banking, consulting, transporting and education (Svensson, 2002). Product sold to the international market is called an export while those bought from the international are the imports Countries are endowed with different assets and natural resources such as land, labor, capital and technology. These make countries to produce the same good more efficiently and therefore sell it more cheaply than other countries. If a country cannot efficiently produce an item, it can obtain the item by trading with another country that can (Terpstra, and Ravi, 1997).

International marketing is highly based on population size. Dense populated region create high demand of goods and services. Therefore population is one of the key factors that affect international marketing. Overpopulation is the large number of people which exceed the available resources. It create a lot of constrain on the land. First it occupies large part of the land which can be used for production purposes (Sabry, 2000). Second it create high demand for commodities and services. Overpopulation is one of the key factors that bring great impact on the international marketing. It can either be positive or negative effects. This mostly affects developing countries such as African countries like Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria which have over 30 million people.

The main aim of this study is to be able to determine how environmental factors like overpopulation in the United States of America and other countries around the world have affected international trade patterns and marketing.

Methods

Participants

The study involved a study on the population of both the developed countries and the less developed countries. The countries which were studied were Italy, UK, Russia, China, India, Bangladesh, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Nigeria, Kenya Brazil, Mexico, and other countries of the world.  The participant countries are the countries which are involved in international trade where they trade with other countries so as to obtain the commodities that they do not produce locally.

Type of study

The study was both quantitative and qualitative. It involved multivariate regression statistic to study the target group. The statistical instruments used were quantitative as it showed the number of participants studied while the correlation between the different variables was qualitative.

Hypothesis

It was assumed that there is a direct relationship between the rising rates of population and the international markets.

Procedure

The analysis of data from a database containing comprehensive demographic information on the population growth of the participant countries from the international market database was collected and analysed. Several countries were selected from the international trading countries and studies were carried out on these countries.

During the study, the population growths were carefully examined then the inflation rates were then determined so as to be able to make a comparison between the population growth of a country and the inflation rates since they were assumed to be related. Then the overall performance of the individual participant country was then determined either to be very good, good, neutral, poor, or very poor.

Results

According to the studies done, it is very clear that failure in the international markets can be as a result of overpopulation in a country. Results have shown that in developing or the less developed countries like African countries and some other countries international marketing results are very low as compared to the results of the developed countries like America.

The population growth in various continents was summarized in the Table 2 as shown below. It was found out that in African countries the population growth rate was found out to be 55%, the middle East countries was found to be 51%, Asia was found to be 35%, Latin America was 30%, the Pacific was 8%, North America was 24%, the Former Soviet Union was -1%, and the non-OECD Europe was found to have the least population growth of -11%.

Continent

Population growth rate (%)

Africa

55

Middle east

51

Asia

35

Latin America

30

North America

24

Europe

9

Pacific

8

Former soviet union

-1

Non OECD Europe

-11

Table 2 : population growth 1990-2008

Table 3 shows the relationship between the population rate between the population rate and the rates of inflation and how the country performs in the international market.

 

Population rate (%)

Inflation rate (%)

Performance in the international market

USA

12

10

Very good

Kenya

70

55

Very poor

Nigeria

50

36

Poor

Brazil

15

11

good

Japan

10

Below 10

Very good

Mexico

25

15

Good

Tanzania

64

50

Very poor

China

26

25

Good

Ghana

57

54

Poor

Afghanistan

30

20

good

Zimbabwe

86

70

Very poor

 

Table 3: Summary of international market analysis

Discussion

It was noted that in the developed countries, the population rate is not that high that is why the developed countries perform very well in the international markets as compared to those countries which are overpopulated (Malhotra et al., 1996). Overpopulation leads to an increase in the unemployment rates. This shows that the numbers of individuals in a country are very many as compared to the currently available jobs in the job market of the country (Keegan, 1989).

Survey shows that overpopulation lead to deepening spiral of suffering because population increases geometrically while food is produced arithmetically depending on Malthus thought. Malthus argued that this issue can be prevented by decreasing fertility rate and through positive check. This creates food crises in the international market (Onkvisit and John, 2004).

When in a country there is an increasing rate in the levels of inflation, it shows that the people in these countries pay more for essential and basic commodities. This is because the price of the essential goods in the country rise at a very fast rate which is very dangerous because the wage rate does not increase this shows that the level (Joshi, 2005).

Over population creates high demand for goods and services. They crave for food such as maize, cooking fat, sugar, rice, wheat products, animal products and fruits. They also demand services like health care, education, communication services, Administration services, transportation services and security services.

People in a country provide labor force to the international market. We find so many skilled, competent, semi-skilled and unskilled personnel in the international market. It includes sale marketers, auditors, experts, administrators, accountants and lawyers. Without this people global trading cannot take place effectively and efficiently. Population growth primarily boosts development of social amenities such as schools, hospital, insurance company, banking services, electricity and water services. These are some of important factors that pull people from different countries. Complex program and projects are implemented to accommodate the increasing number of population growth (Hakansson, 1982).

  In developing countries, overpopulation is a major problem. So many people live in poverty stricken areas because of overpopulation. For example in African countries, there is dense population in slums since the residents cannot be able to afford decent housing facilities. Internationally, overpopulation causes a lot of constraint in social amenities, product in the market and natural resources. People tend to demand more than what the world can produce. As a result rationing must be done to ensure equal distribution of goods and services to all members. Many people remain unsatisfied because they get little or sometimes they get nothing. Others get involved in illegal activities in order to get daily bread. Some of these illegal activities include black marketing e.g. drug trafficking, illicit blues and unauthorized mining of gold and coal.

Overpopulation increases the rate of communicable diseases transmission. Some of this diseases transmitted include tuberculosis, HIV&AIDS, swine flu and cholera. Transmission is fast because the distance from one person to another is small and again it is not easy to regulate and control food safety and hygiene in densely populated. At the end of the day we find that a lot of resources and cash are used for medical purposes living little cash to by auxiliary things like motor vehicle thus decline demand in the international market.

In conclusion, overpopulation affects the international market indirectly since it increases the number of people living in a country. When the number of people increases more that the current jobs which are available, it leads to an increase in the rate of unemployment. These high levels of unemployment further leads to an increase in the inflation rates which affect the international market by the depreciation of the local domestic currency. Overpopulation affects international marketing indirectly.

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