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Marketing Issues Addressed in the Articles
- The article called “A Cultural Approach to Branding in the Global Marketplace” discusses the role of a cultural perspective in shaping brands in a global context.
- The article represented above also focuses on the central role of brand mythology because it is based on people’s values, meanings, and symbols formed differently across cultures.
- Managers of multinational corporations should adjust to the changing patterns of international marketing; at the same time, detailed analysis of international marketing as a set of academic concepts and definitions is crucial for marketing scholars to adopt the corresponding changes.
- Cayla and Arnould (2008) insist that international marketing should be considered to be a complex relationship between individuals and community.
- Therefore, social paradigm of shaping a branding policy should be strongly associated with cultural context, local beliefs, and consumer preferences.
- The countries integrating their markets to the international level should take into consideration the politics of ethnic identity and the role of multinational society in developing branding loyalty.
- The article stresses that national myths should be regarded as powerful instruments for constructing brands.
- A spatial-geographic analysis is also indispensable for understanding the societal dimension of international marketing.
- The article has concluded that global branding is based on various efforts to deliver a culturally appropriate brand analysis to meet the shifts in a market-mediated global community.
- The article by Backhaus and Muhlfeld (2001) also discusses the marketing problems in the light of rapid globalization process.
- The scholars refer to the concept of standardization of advertising at an international level with regard to geographic, cultural, and social aspects of marketing relations.
- The process of standardizing international advertising introduces a potential for minimizing expenditures on strategies development, conceptions, and placement of company’s campaigns.
- Consumer demand is closely associated with geographic mobility as well as cultural peculiarities in shaping advertisements.
- The most important attributes of international advertising are confined to language, cultural beliefs, social factors, and economic environment.
- Such aspects as themes and similarities in perception receive diverse attitudes in various countries.
- The article has concluded that the levels of standardization perception among consumers from different countries are almost the same. Therefore, the international context of commercial relations can succeed in developing successful approach to designing advertisement in accordance with the fixed range of elements.
- Using the same picture in international advertising is the most important element of standardization.
- Image development and avoidance of textual manage can attract and address larger customer segment.
- Such factors as similarity perception and advertised product were insignificant in estimating the results of the study.
- The size of the advertised picture also plays a tangible role in terms of perception of similarity.
- International marketing should consider the role of standardization of advertising in the global context to contribute to the development of consumer demand.
- The concept of localization in international marketing and consumer behavior are essential for estimating various approaches to developing advertisements.
Conceptual Frameworks Developed by the Authors to Analyze International Marketing Perspective
The concept of international marketing and globalization could be considered by means of various conceptual frameworks and theories. The articles under analysis refer to the analysis of concept that relate to marketing and consumer perspectives but to a different extent. In particular, Cayla and Arnould (2008) have chosen a cultural approach to analyze the concept of international marketing in the light of the globalization process. This article also addresses various dimensions and aspects of understanding how brand development influences marketing trends. Backhaus and Muhlfeld (2001) introduce the analysis of standardizing international advertisements from a consumer perspective. Although the themes of the research studies differ, both articles seek to uncover the definition of international marketing as well as various conditions and issues influencing its development. Additionally, the articles also refer to similar conceptual frameworks because the scholars’ discussion is confined to the analysis of social, cultural, and spatial trends in perceiving brands and advertisement of commodities.
From a social perspective, both articles demonstrate a thorough analysis of the marketing concepts. In this respect, Cayla and Arnould (2008) assert, “…international marketing’s focus on individualism may reveal more about Western roots than it does about the varying cultural systems Western marketers are trying to navigate” (p. 89). Therefore, the concept of international marketing is perceived through closer consideration of relations between individuals and their role in the globalized community (Richter, 2012). Additionally, considering international branding beyond managerial dimensions is also essential for disclosing social factors and their influence on a global cultural context. A social analysis is also sufficiently represented in another research on marketing. Specifically, the scholars outline several determinants for standardizing advertisements at an international level. From an individual perspective, “the assimilation and modernization of consumer needs and purchasing behavior across national borders are points in favor of standardization” (Backhaus & Muhlfeld, 2001, p. 53). However, due to the fact that international marketing is a constantly changing phenomenon, the influence of purchasing behavior and brand loyalty on their attitude to globalization can be mixed.
From a cultural perspective, the concept of international marketing can be viewed through the prism of values, beliefs, and attitudes shaped by consumers (Bush & Hunt, 2011). In this respect, both articles stress the importance of ethnographic approaches to understanding the global environment. In particular, Cayla and Arnould (2008) insist on the fact that global branding should closely be associated with standardization, quality insurance, and authenticity. Therefore, the cultural construct of standardization premises on the intention of brand-induced economies to enter the global marketplace (Schmit, 2011). In contrast, Backhaus and Muhlfeld (2001) pay close attention to cultural peculiarities for adjusting advertisement to global demands. The latter refers to a combination of needs, beliefs, and preferences of consumers across cultures and borders.
While considering spatial and geographic characteristics, the articles approach the issue from different perspectives. Specifically, the article on branding refers to the concept of Western “imaginary” to understand how branding could be created across boundaries. In this respect, the scholars explain, “…imaginary refer to the values, institutions, and symbols that are common to marketing as a discipline and form of discourse” (Cayla & Arnould, 2008, p. 87). Therefore, the main element of imaginary is an individual who shapes the values, meaning, and beliefs based on his/her cultural and social backgrounds. In contrast, Backhaus and Muhlfeld (2001) provide a more detailed analysis of spatial and geographic aspects. Specifically, the scholars have chosen several countries to understand what elements each country considers a priority in developing international advertising. Therefore, understanding local norms and values and synthesizing them into one common algorithm of handling commercial issues is the best solution to the problem of standardization.
In conclusion, both articles refer to similar conceptual framework for analyzing the concept of international marketing. Specifically, cultural and ethnographic techniques have been employed to understand how various factors contribute to change paradigms in the global market place. Despite the fact that the approaches touch on social, cultural, and geographic perspectives, used as frameworks for analysis, all of them are confined to understanding the individual dimension and its role in shaping global trends in international marketing. Specifically, both brand development and standardization of advertising are premised on the evaluation of consumer values, beliefs, and preferences. Therefore, the global environment should be perceived as relations between individuals and the community.
- Backhaus, K., & Muhlfeld, K. (2001). Consumer perspective on standardization in international advertising: A student sample. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(5),53-61.
- Bush, R. F., & Hunt, S. D. (2011). Marketing theory: Philosophy of science perspectives. Decatur, US: Marketing Classics Press.
- Cayla, J., & Arnould, E. J. (2008). A cultural approach to branding in the global marketplace. American Marketing Association, 16(4), 86-112.
- Richter, T. (2012). International marketing mix management: Theoretical framework, contingency factors and empirical findings from world-markets. Berlin: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH.
- Schmit, B. (2011). Experience marketing: Concept, frameworks and consumer insights. Groningen, the Netherlands: Now Publishers.