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Nursing theory is the terminology that is given to the knowledge body that is used to support nursing practices. In their professional education nurses usually studies a range of subjects that are interconnected that can be applied in the setting of nurse practices. This kind of knowledge might be derived from derived from experimental learning, from sources that can be termed as formal, for instance nursing research or from non-nursing sources. Talking of nursing theory is in most cases difficult. To many people, nursing means many things. Most agreed universally is that nursing is a science that involves people, environment and processes fuelled by transcendence vision in the healthcare context. It is much interesting noting that 90% of all nursing theories have emerged in the last 20 years. Many schools are encouraging students to come up with personal philosophies or mind range theories of nursing as part of the curriculum being undertaken. Some have been argue that this multiplicity of theory to the practice might appear to be detrimental and undermines the common vision. Others are arguing that the nature of science that is still young is sufficiently far reaching to need such like tactics to elicit true consensus, (Clpna, 2008).

Evolution of nursing is not a new process; it has been in occurrence since the most basic medical interventions began. Within the western model of nursing there exist clear progression of nursing from mothers, to nuns, to doctors and at last is being considered as a separate  complimentary role in the team of medical. Some of the nursing theorists include Helen Erickson, Virginia Henderson, Imogene King, Dorothea Orem, Betty Neuman, Madeleine Leininger and Flourence Nightingle among others. This assignment deals with nursing theory with the focus on currency, relevance and the influence of technology on nursing practices. It takes into consideration the impact of global warming, national and international conflicts as well as disenfranchised and displaced populations.

Impact of Technology on Nursing


Technology affect everybody as it pertains to the daily life, especially has been of great help in nursing. It used to be difficult to recall doctors and other staff members without phones, pagers and beepers. Telephone was one of the greatest inventions, currently cell phones are taking over landlines. As a result the medical staffs are afforded more freedom in movement and easily accessible at a moment's notice while mobile. The faster response due to these communication devices, to critical care nursing decisions, is that it ends up saving time and lives to the scattered population. At the time that time matters and life is in danger, quick communication through technology makes the difference.

Computers have saved time and tons of papers as no longer do policies and procedure books need be printed as most facilities store them on their computers for the workers to readily review. Memos, scheduled events, issues of safety, specific facility publication and the email boxes have become day-to-day communication for facility workers to better and enhance critical care nursing experience. This has in a way reeducated carbon dioxide emission and other green house gasses. Through computers, the workers have world wide access to all information including pharmacological information. Computers have made it easier to have updated pharmacological guidelines and drug reviews without travelling. Since each year new drugs are manufactured, it proves nearly impossible and very expensive to know all the drugs. But with the availability of computers have become savers to aid in critical care nursing and the medical profession, (Richards, 2001).

The availability of internet has enhanced client teaching whenever they may be hence enhancing client wellness. Teaching materials and hand-outs are all available on the internet and are expanding rapidly. Nurses are having the capability of empowering clients to play an active role in their health care by encouraging them to utilize internet sources. Specific and general information concerning health and access to medical facilities, support group and the health care providers are just a few illustrations of health care resources that clients may get from multitude of internet sources.

Internet has also enhanced job searches and continuing education. Nurses from anywhere are able to conduct their own searches for information including job searches and continuing education for the growth of the profession. Nurses have to embrace and influence this kind of information technology so that they enhance professional accountability in the advancement nursing practice and the continued viability. One method of advancing the combination of internet technology and the practices of nursing is via the development of the Nursing Informatics field. Individuals having degrees in Nursing Informatics are nurse-educated, the specialist in computer are employed to filter the technological requirements of nurses with computers systems, the capabilities to meet the requirements of healthcare environment, (Clpna, 2008).

Networking with professional colleagues world wide via the internet, has an advantage of allowing nurses to get new career opportunities. Searching for jobs world wide, with some sites providing opportunities for one to apply directly online and make some research on the organization before the interview day. Some sites provide many services like job listing, job profile online, and submission among others. Communication and networking has been strengthened by computer technology, through computer-mediated communication. This provides nurses with a way of exchanging immediate information and discussing issues that are nurse-related, (Richards, 2001).

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Current nursing practices

The early days of nursing education depended on an apprentice of education. The instructors were selected basing on their excellent performance and clinical skills. Most of them continued to practice, hence ensuring the currency of their knowledge. Currently a blended-role advanced practice nurse is said to incorporate both the nurse function in medication and outside medication. It seems that nursing has been developed inconsistent with this role. Blended-role advanced practice nursing is being exercised in both hospital setting and in primary ambulatory units of care. Abundant evidence has shown the advantages of advanced nursing practice to the health care quality. The development of advanced nursing practice has been on the boom in many countries. However several critical issues remain unsolved. First and foremost, it is correct that the number of nurses has increased in the past few years. The potential and concept of advanced nursing practice has not been recognized fully by the current leaders and other colleagues in health sector. Most of them still believe that the practice of nursing is rooted on medical model, as a result possesses its development. The diversity of role definition which varies from one institution to the other has been discussed. Interferences of medical establishment with the profession of nursing are also another problem in many countries. Generally, the description of nursing practices in most countries has been divided into three major parts; direct patient care, medical intervention and the nursing profession. 

A report describing daily activities of nursing in a national medical center, shows that matters concerning medical like ward round with attending physicians, order prescription under physician supervision, attending medical conferences, reporting lab data and result imaging take more than 50% of nursing occupied time.

Another problem is that national and international definition of and standardized education has not been developed. The significance of education for the functions of advanced nursing practices has been in the recent past highlighted by several professionals. There has been an agreement that functions of advanced nursing are to be based on postgraduate education. Hospital-based short education courses have remained to be the only way of preparing nurses. The aim of advanced practice nursing is providing holistic nursing care while using medical protocol, (Kentucky Nurse, 2004).      

Modern nursing practices evolved out of war. Currently, nurses are to work in war zones, however, the profession as a whole need to consider its duty in caring for victims of both national and international conflicts and what its international role in the prevention of conflicts. This implies that nurses have to be informed on the devastations caused by conflicts not only in countries where conflicts and war takes place but also in the whole world. The duty of nurses is to prevent illness and the alleviation of suffering, which may include; the long term mobility that is as a result of war. They are supposed to be politically active to in the resolution of conflicts and violence resolution and prevention at local community, national and at the international level. For the implementation of these, issues ranging from the perspective of ethics and nursing education and practice have to be addressed, (Ramona & Staggers, 2008).    

Relevance of Nursing Theory

Nursing theory provides the principles that usually underpin practices and helps in generating further nursing knowledge. On the other hand, a lack of agreement in the professional literature on nursing theory usually confuse nurses and has caused many people to dismiss nursing theory as irrelevant to the practice. By giving nurses a sense of identity, nursing theory can really help patients, managers and any other professionals in the field of health, so that they can recognize the contribution that is unique that nurses make to the health care services, (Clpna, 2008).  

Providing a good definition of nursing theory also assists nurses in understanding their purposes and the role in the health care setting. In the profession of nursing, care and compassion has been the main role. The reason that makes nursing theory vital nowadays is that it assisted in moving nursing profession from one of carrying out orders from physicians to one that has made nurses utilize their own personal beliefs. This has influenced the nursing occupation. It brought out the issue that manipulation of patients' environment and life circumstance can lead to the results that are positive to the patient. Without the Madeleine Leininger and others there would have been no concern on different culture recognition which usually enhances nurse-client relationship. This helps in building faith and trust between patients, families of patients and the care giving nurse, (Ramona & Staggers, 2008).

Nursing theory has undoubtedly had major impact in nursing care quality. The job opportunities in health care provide safety in areas that manufacturing and retailing are sources of jobs that are no longer dependable. The systems of health care have become major employers in many cities throughout the world. Health care expansion has in the recent past created a ripple influence on the economic growth by the development of other companies to give out service, (Reiter et al, 2004).

Impacts of Global Warming

Considering the impacts of global warming on nursing and health care, it appears to be enormous. It has already raised average temperature by 0.60C. Glaciers are world wide retreating among others. The temperature change over the last 150 year has been small, but significant enough to alter disease patterns world wide. According to WHO an approximate of 150, 000 people die every year to climate change that occurred in 1970s. Different types of impacts include direct impact that comprises of cold and heat, pathogen impact, social economic impact and environmental impact. The causes of global warming include; fossil fuel burning that has increased green house gas in the atmosphere hence retention of more heat from the solar energy.

There exist more than 30 new or resurgent diseases in about three decades ago.  This is as a result of changing patterns in the distribution of Malaria, West Nile Virus, and Dengue fever, Cholera, TBE and Lyme disease among others. In places like Sweden, wormer winter days have encouraged the northward movement of ticks which in coincidence, has increased cases of tick-borne. The Dengue afflicts has increased in tropics and subtropics. Its range has been broadened in the Americas over the past 10 years. The increase in Dengue has been attributed to the increase in temperature. There still neither vaccines nor specific drugs. An estimate of about 2.5 billion people is at risk from Dengue, (Clpna, 2008).  

High temperatures have lead to the increased cases of floods and droughts. These have resulted to the increased cases of cholera outbreak. Droughts usually wipe way supplies of safe drinking water and concentrate contaminates that in one way or the other might remain dilute. Warming of seas usually leads to water borne diseases. This in most cases is facilitated by poor public health and poverty. Investigations are still underway to get the connections between global warming and Lyme disease, (Ramona & Staggers, 2008). The cascading impacts of global warming involves a rise in extreme whether events like heat waves and extreme cold, storms heat waves and extreme cold, storms, , sea-flooding, droughts, hurricanes, soil erosion and desertification, river-floods, and landslides and mudslide among others.   

Beside the spread of pathogen connected impacts, it also leads to increase in; malnutrition, cardiac and respiratory illness, trauma, allergies and the like. Heat wave deaths, especially among very young and elderly: reviews of weather and climate problems depicts that the top 2 killers are associated drought and heat waves. Individuals experiencing heart problems are the most affected, since, their cardiovascular systems have to work extra harder to ensure the body is cool during hot seasons. In the process some respiratory and Heat exhaustion problems increases. Increased air temperatures also increase the concentration of Ozone at ground point. Lung tissues are damaged by Ozone and cause certain problems for individuals having asthma and lung diseases. Drought in most cases leads to disease outbreaks and famines especially in less developed countries hence kill people. Combining Warmer temperatures with increased ambient UV radiation worsens the photochemical smog, particularly in urban centers. In some other areas deaths do occur due to coldness. Global warming also has some impacts on ecological systems.  This involves the spread of rats and mice, flies, ticks, weevils, moulds, locusts, and bacteria among others. Other effects are; an impact on food chains and interruption or dwindling of human food supplies, (Kentucky Nurse, 2004).

The highly affected areas will be in the regions of developing nations, yet global warming has been an effect of developed nations. As an effect, developed nations have greater responsibility. Human migration will occur due to climate disasters, as an effect stressing health resources and hospitals of the neighboring nations and the world community. Everyone on the planet will be affected regardless of race, class and culture. Economic, industrial, financial, transport political and social systems will be put under strain that is severe, due to compounded oil crisis that will be on the way coming. There will be an increase in wars and conflicts too. This global problem needs a strategy of international dimensions that has the capability of translating into regional and actions at the local level. The shits required in priorities for the resources of health care from curative that is high tech to the public and environmental health, (Clpna, 2008).

The effects will be adversely affect poorest individuals within large population of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. It has been suggested that principles for fair adaptation in climate change regime includes; avoiding dangerous climate change, putting the most vulnerable first and equal participation of all and forward-looking responsibility, (Reiter et al, 2004). 

The official responses include: Kyoto Protocol; which reduces GHG emissions by developed countries. WHO has recognized health impacts of climate change, Stern review on economics of climate change? The general implications that on the global institution of nursing include the following; the resources of nursing will be severely stressed in many places, the impacts on migration of nurses, unresponsive skill mixes, public sector finances will be subjected to pressure, people will be displaced while others become refugees and experience of new disease pattern, (Kentucky Nurse, 2004).

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