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Background

Nurse leaders influence the work environments of nurses working at the bedside. Nursing leadership plays an important role in fostering work environments that attract and retain nurses. This study aims at determining the relationship between nurse leader’s emotional intelligence and registered nurse job satisfaction.

A health-related belief

A person who had a persistent cold and chest problems was expected to take food that had high animal fat. It was believed that the fat would help to relieve pain in the chest and quicken the healing of common cold. Although animal fat is a form of saturated fats, it was commonly used for medicinal value. People who were suffering from such illnesses were required to eat animal proteins such as eggs and fat from beef among others. During other times, beef and chicken products that contained high amount of fats were boiled in order to breakdown the already saturated fats in them. This was purposely done to produce fats that would be used by a patient suffering from chest-related complications.

There are many reasons that make people express a range of health beliefs. Some of the beliefs are commonly accepted within a large population such as an ethnic group. However, some beliefs are evident only within a given family setting and are not present in another (Jung & Miller, 2004). The exclusive belief that animal fat has some healing effect is associated with the natural forces which play a vital role in people’s lives.

Theories have been developed that try to explain how health-related cases are regarded by different individuals. Health Belief Model is one of the psychological theories that tries to explain health-related activities. It is a theory that centres on the mind-set and belief of the person (GREEN, 2002). It has been applied to explain a wide range of health-related behaviours in different cultural and social settings. Health Belief Model is an applicable model based on a number of assumptions. First, it is used in instances whereby negative health situations and consequences can be evaded. Therefore in the above case, animal fat was used basing on the assumption that it will help to prevent the worst consequence of the illness. Persistent chest problems can lead to pneumonic conditions which are highly dangerous which is the reason for the chosen remedial option.

Second, this theory is used when a positive outcome is expected. This implies that the use of a medication plan is recommended if it will produce positive results (GREEN, 2002). Finally, Health Belief Model is based on the view that the individual can adapt the medication plan comfortably and with a lot of confidence.

Furthermore, this theory is used within the constructs that signify a perceived danger or gain. They include perceived vulnerability, professed harshness, apparent returns, and perceived obstructions (GREEN, 2002). Perceived vulnerability to an illness refers to the personal opinion of the likelihood of contracting a disease or a health condition. It helps to identify people who are at risk and even categorize the risk based on the individual behaviour. Perceived harshness is the personal opinion of the seriousness of a health problem and the related consequences (GREEN, 2002).

Methods

 There was a predictive non-experimental design study carried out in five hospitals which had an aim to evaluate relationships between nurse leaders (31 people) and registered nurses (799 people). The MSCEIT and MBTI were administered to the nurse leaders. The nurses took part in NDNQI RN Job Satisfaction Survey in 2010.0

Results and Measurements

 The representative sample performed two online tests, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Myers Brigg Trait Inventory (MBTI). The demographic data that was collected from nurse leaders consisted of age, race, sex, educational level, experience of the nursing profession and certification status. Stepwise deletion and regression analysis was used to examine the relations among the characteristics of staff nurses and nurse leaders. The MBTI results were received from CPP. Inc. and the MSCEIT results were also got from MHS, Inc. The response rate of nurse leaders was 46%; the response rate of NDNQI RN Job Satisfaction was 62%. There were 65 % of women among the nurse leaders, 67.7% of the participants were White, and 12.9% were Black, 19.4% were Hispanic. The ESTJ (19.35%) was the prevalent MBTI type, followed by ISFJ and ENFJ (9.68% each). Speaking about the nurse leaders, they were mainly extroverts (n=20), judging (n=19), thinking (n=16), sensing (n=18).The general MSCEIT scores of nurse leaders varied from 69 to 111 and implied a range of those who consider development to competent having the average mark of 89.84 (consider the improvement). The participating nurse leaders got the highest scores in the MSCEIT Facilitating scale that ranged from 69 to 121 and an average score was 95.19 (low mean score). The overall MSCEIT scores of the whole sample vary from 89.90 to 95.19. Generally, staff nurses who participated in the NDNQI RN Job Satisfaction Survey were fairly contended with their nurse leaders according to an average score of 55.03 of 60: this score was corresponding to comparison hospitals which took part in the NDNQI RN Job Satisfaction Survey (American Nurses Association, 2010). The nurse leaders were given an average score of 4.50 for th patient assignments, and were rated an average score of 4.35. Staff nurses agreed to recommend their hospital to their friends.

Discussion: Personality Types

There are about sixteen personality types, but in relation to the Jung’s theory, an individual’s psychological composition works at two states, the conscious and the unconscious levels. He grouped the psychic energy into two fundamental attitude types, the introverted and the extroverted. In order to provide a comprehensive description of the psychological type of an individual, both the function and attitude varieties are considered (Jung & Miller, 2004). Most of the time, the attitude which is the conscious side dominates over the unconscious one. However, when more than one function is used to describe a personality type, there is always the dominant and the secondary one. Out of the many personality types, I am an extraverted sensation type.

An extraverted sensation psychological type seeks for the power that is obtained from solid objects and physical undertakings (Sharp, 1987). This implies that consciousness is therefore directed towards the items and actions that are likely to stimulate the strongest feelings. Such a person is a realist who looks for a chance to experience as many tangible sensations as possible (American Nurses Association, 2012). Most of the time, gratifying sensations is preferred. Additionally, such people do not trust their personal psychological procedures and they opt to relate for such things in terms of outer occurrences. As a matter of fact, if this type goes to the extreme, it can be offensively sensual thereby making the individual to take advantage of situations or other people in order to please themselves (Jung & Miller, 2004).

Besides the two general attitudes already discussed, Jung formulated a structure of four functional types of psychic energy. The four functional types that describe Jung’s theory are discussed below. One of them is called sensation, which is a function of consciousness. It refers to the instant experience that a person has with an object (Sharp, 1987). Sensation recognizes objects as they are, both practically and tangibly. It does not consider inferences or interpretations made from an event or object, but it rather aims at expressing plainly the information provided to the senses (Jung & Miller, 2004). Intuition is yet another function which refers to the ability to handle information based on its underlying potential. People who have intuitive types of personalities prefer theoretical rather than practical basis of procedures. They are also fascinated by new things and do not like things done conventionally.

Furthermore, thinking is a function that refers to the ability to manage information based on its composition and purpose. People whose personality is of thinking type tend to apply logic analysis in everything (Sharp, 1987). On the other hand, feeling is another function that refers to the ability to manage information based on the original active circumstances and its interactions. Such people pay much attention to people’s emotions and feelings (Jung & Miller, 2004). They also pass judgment based on an ethical ground of what is good or bad. According to Jung’s theory, thinking and feeling functions are regarded as rational due to the fact that they pass logical judgement. On the contrary, intuition and sensation are irrational since they just perceive the nature of something without applying reasonable judgement.

There are various challenges that are faced when people with different personality types are working together as a group. When people with diverse psychological types are not managed effectively, any given project is doomed to fail (Sharp, 1987). Therefore, there is a need to recognise and appreciate every individual in a group. A better understanding of the employees can result in healthy teamwork.

Extroverts are generally active and outspoken, thus they can easily express themselves in a team. On the other hand, introverts are normally quiet, cautious, and systematic. An introvert has the ability to make reasonable judgements based on careful reflection and analysis (Jung & Miller, 2004). A team should comprise both extroverts and introverts so as to accommodate all personality types and ensure a healthy working environment. It is therefore the best way for making crucial management decisions (Sharp, 1987). Additionally, sensing personality types requires intuitive individuals to remind them to increase their reasoning capability. 

The American Nursing Association (ANA) endorsed nine provisions termed as the Code of Ethics for Nurses in 2001. One of the nine provisions states that ‘the fundamental commitment of a nurse is to the patient irrespective of whether he is an individual, family, group or community’ (American Nurses Association, 2012). According to this provision, a nurse is expected to go an extra mile in helping the patient. This means that the nurse will be required to deny herself a lot of pleasures at the interest of her patients. It can be very challenging for individuals with the thinking personality type. Such individuals are always analytical applying logical reasoning in all situations (Jung & Miller, 2004). Therefore, during the situations that call for a nurse to observe and understand the feelings of a patient, such a personality would perform poorly in it. Also, introverted feeling personality type would experience problems with the patients since they would not be able to say “no” to any request of a patient. These individuals like pleasing everyone and, therefore, they would be compelled to attend to the patient’s requests even when the procedures are not medically certified (American Nurses Association, 2012).

One of the standards of professional performance is education. In order to provide knowledge and proficiency in provision of health, education is crucial. This is aimed at improving the skills for competent problem solving techniques in the system (American Nurses Association, 2012). This can be challenging to people who do not like being proactive. Their personality makes them prefer the status quo to remain.

In order to carry out all the obligations stipulated under the provisions and standards for professional performance, various factors are incorporated. Integration of human resource and the right machinery coupled with the most competent strategic plans will yield good outcome. This calls for a better understanding of all employees’ personalities so that their energies can be harnessed towards generating synergized effort and consequently achieve great results (American Nurses Association, 2012).

Conclusions

Future research is needed to determine if there is a relationship between nurse leader’s emotional intelligence ability and registered nurse job satisfaction. Additional research is also needed to determine what to measure in regards to nurse leader emotional intelligence, ability or behaviour. Another issue that emerged in the examination of EI is the moderating relationship between the nurse leader’s span of control and staff nurse satisfaction on the NDNQI.

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