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Brutus stresses a small republic because he finds that it is easy to manage and is homogenous. He argues that America was vast and it would be difficult to control and govern. Brutus believed that, the management of a country where there is division or discrimination of its citizens according to race, wealth and nationality would lead to conflicts. Black Americans who were made to be slaves would not get the required freedom and liberty from the white Americans. The anti reformists cited that, the different diversities and cultures would lead to mistrust. Brutus therefore stressed for a small republic because it would ensure total freedom to all citizens in America and especially the black Americans and Indians who were considered foreigners in their own country. He therefore stresses for justice and fairness for all.
Brutus views are anchored to homogeneity and virtue because homogeneity will ensure a free and equal society for all people in the state or republic. Homogeneity will eliminate cases of slavery and all people treated with respect and dignity they deserve. Virtue means that, people's rights must be respected at all times, in that, no one should be mistreated for instance being made to be a slave because of his or her race.
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The Sam Adams letter to John Scollay shows a concern about how the constitution was inconsistent with the other treaties under the United States authorities' powers. Sam wanted independence, equality and freedom as some of the virtues to be upheld in the country. He was against black Americans being made slaves hence he was against federalism. He wanted new political era where political principles must ensure mutual preservation of people's liberty and lives treated with due respect and dignity.
The letter stressed on the consolidation and unity of all people in order to promote tranquility, welfare and prosperity hence was seen by federalists to be against their plans of having much power. Sam was against United States suppressive laws or legislations where leaders had uncontrollable powers where people were forced to pay taxes and imposed duties and excise. In Sam's letter, he stressed on equality and uniformity in all operations and sharing of responsibilities in accordance with the law. He was therefore advocating for fair laws to serve all people equally.
Brutus argues that, the government is vested with too much power or authority to control everything. He says that, there must be a body responsible for making laws and to execute all laws necessary so as to have a united state government. He also expressed his concerns that, too much power vested in each state would clog all the governments of the United State. He was against too much power given to a single person because it would make him superior hence dominating and suppressing other people. He wanted a state authority to be shared and will ensure that federal government succeeds.
The authority should make a clear separation of powers or authority among the legislature, judiciary and the executive. According to Charles Louis, he once said, "It is natural to a republic to have only a small territory, otherwise it cannot be long subsists." He was expressing his concerns that there are men who are too ambitious and want to control everything if allowed to have a lot of power or authority. He claims that, some were violent and can misuse the authority or power vested on them to abuse and misuse the less privileged.
He feared that too, much power vested in one person as in the constitution is dangerous to the whole country. He justified this by saying that, someone may be having his own personal interests to pursue and not the state's. This would lead to the oppression of citizens and their needs would not be met. Brutus was concerned about the country's governance and leadership that; it would change to tyranny from a free democratic government. The extensive coverage of the United States would be difficult to manage and it will lead to the larger states conquering smaller states so as to expand their territories. The small states would be underrepresented and confining all states in a single capital can be inconvenient because of the distance one has to travel for meetings, debates and to express their concerns.
He was also concerned that the laws were not derived from the people themselves, but a few representatives who may be having their own agendas hence passing laws that only favor them, and they may not possess the integrity to know what people want. People may be short changed by those in power hence their demands may not heard because of the bureaucracies created in the law by those who are vested with authority or power to legislate certain laws.
From his perspective, Brutus was right in that, the people may not be governed according to their expectations; because it is impossible to have a representation which declares all the minds of the citizens hence inconveniencing a democratic government. United States being vast will not be able to transact business because the interests of the people, manners and sentiments may not be similar. This will lead to a constant clashing and conflicts hence retarding the government operations leading to slow economic development of some sates.
Different states have varying climates and production hence their development need will not coincide. This means that, decision making process can be impaired because of the discordant and heterogeneous principles and interests. Magistrates who execute the laws may be forced or commanded by the top government officials who are vested with authority to bend the rules to suit their needs.
Madison rejects the virtue and homogeneity because in England, citizens have complained that parliament is oppressive because the laws are not executed as expected because the magistrate can be commanded to act in contrary with the law. There is no freedom because the full power and authority is concentrated in the internal regulations.
Madison rejects it because it will lead to conflicts due to different opinions and lack of a united army to implement the laws. Depending on the citizens, it would complicate the governance structure because people may not be respected due to lack of democracy and confidence on the law makers. Madison argues that, there must be clear governance and leadership structure.
A large republic will provide solutions to the problem because the government will have adequate support to execute the laws from the faction since there will be no fear of anyone. It will give the magistrates an opportunity to apply the laws without any influence. There is the trust people will have on the executive because all states' or regions' interests have been spelled. The central command of the states troops and the navy helps to solve problem of citizens in charge of security matters.
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It is based on the Madison's human nature because, people always expect power to be exercised in accordance with the laws of the land but some may use it to benefit themselves at the expense of the majority. Each state wants to govern itself because men are always ambitious and will struggle to amass power to fulfill or gratify their own ambitions and interests but not the public interests. This can be true because, most people are self centered hence a free and a democratic state may not be achieved because large states may take advantage of the small states because of the resources they possess.
The role of the representative was to ensure that people's voices are heard but in contrary, it perpetuated slavery. This is because, even if a slave escapes to another state, he would be returned to his state to continue serving his state as a slave. With this faction group who believe in one thing, representation will ensure that all states get the resources and be heard when decisions are being made.
Madison conception in the Federalist 51 is reflected in that, in Federalist 51, it explains how power should be separated from the government in order to maintain high degree of liberty preservation. It is also reflected in the way Madison wanted an independent legislature, executive and judiciary but the Federalist 51 has demanded for one appointing authority so as to avoid conflicts and deviations from the required principles.
Madison is referred to as pluralist because he prefers power and authority to be centralized in the hands of a few people but to be used to serve the majority. This will create unnatural, unpractical and undesirable inequalities among the people. Though they want power to be supreme, Madison is considered a pluralist because he wants all people to feel part of the government and nobody should be suppressed by the laws of the country. He believes that, people or citizens should be part of the law making process and the majority should not suffer because of the problems caused by the minority.
This means that, both the Federalist and Anti federalist perspectives are applicable. It therefore means that, in some instances, federalist is applicable and in some, anti federalist perspective is used. In other words, it means that, there are some who believe in federalists and others anti federalist.