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Political campaign aims at influencing the citizens of a given state to like the opinion of certain political party. America campaigns have been contacted for a long time. Political campaigns refer to electoral campaigns when individuals contacts rallies to influence the citizens to support their party or their opinion. In America election for president started in 1792. All the candidates fighting for the presidency seat do campaign using different tools and strategies. In the 19th century, the campaigns contacted have changed compared to the 2008 presidential campaigns. The American National government officials are selected by citizens through elections. The president heads the government and the election of president gets contacted after every four years. Other officials who assist in running of the government get selected by citizens from their respective counts. (James, 360).
The American constitution in the article two composed the method of the presidential election. This also included the Electoral College. Many individuals wanted to choose the president by casting out votes. Each state was represented in the election even the District of Columbia was graded some electors. The American territories are not represented in Electoral College. The campaign for president in America stated in 1989, and many states contributed in voting. During this time, the person with many votes becomes the president and the second become the vice president (Jensen, 206).
The amendment to cast two different votes got established in 1800. After that individuals could vote for the president candidate and the vice president, and no candidate could win a majority vote in the Electoral College. The bill which established the separation of vote for both seats did not change up to date. Today, American people votes for many seats ranging from the president to senator. The presidential candidates start campaigning earlier to convince individuals to go for their support. Currently, many people support campaigns but before only few people supported political. They perceived politic as dirty game and felt insecure when involving themselves with the politician (John, 678).
Presidential campaign in the 19th century
The campaigns changed significantly from time to time. In the 19th century, many people campaigned during election times. They employed many strategies and procedures. The presidential candidate fought hard to win the seat. Many contestants demanded the seat while they asked for assistance from the famous people from each state. The presidential candidate had to prepare before the election. They got financial assistance and other consultancy services. All elections conducted were supervised at a given point and contacted at different polling stations. The candidates vote for themselves and there supporters cast out their votes. All registered voters vote but those who did not have votes could not vote (William, 500).
Financially, many presidential candidates could not support their campaigns without the help of other people. The candidates borrowed the money for campaigns from investors and banks. Some of the presidential candidates got support from donors who funded for their campaign. The donors supported the people who had potential of winning the elections. The individuals caring out the campaign used a lot of money and those who fought unsuccessful experience financial problems. The campaigns required a lot of money which got used in implementation of some strategies used (Simon, 270).
The campaigns were facilitated by a quick movement from one place to another. The individuals who could move faster reached a significant audience than those who could not go to many places. The transport system of the campaigning team matter a lot in determining the popularity of a candidate fighting for president seat. People used a different method of transport to reach the people who had votes. The means of communication also determined which person to win the politics. The people who fought for the presidential seat improved their communication system and implementation the transport system so as to reach a significant number of people.
The presidential candidate was represented by a certain party, which individuals voted. There many strategies which assisted the political parties which the presidential candidates ran. The strategies got their application from the view of party members, and those who managed the party. The candidates put a lot of effort to convince the citizen that they could do better, when given the opportunity (Jensen, 234).
The political parties in the 19th century believed that they were armies. They had tactics on how to fight against their opponents and finally emerge winners. They applied strategies applied by the military on the battle ground. They regrouped, retreated and reorganized when conducting their campaigns. They were ready to fight political battle. They had organized their structure in the chain of command just has the military works. After the election, all members went back to their states and the president remained on top since he was the head of the party or the commander. This organization helped the political parties to win in the campaign since they believed that politics were a battle, and they have to win (Simon, 234).
In the campaign, the democratic republicans developed a strategy of recruiting the armies to defend them in case of trouble. They hired troops who supported them in the time they faced insecurity. They trained their troops to fight the enemies when they come across them in times of campaign. This showed that the campaign had some issues of insecurity, but the political parties had prepared themselves physically ready to fight the enemies. The parties had an established security for their officials and other candidates. This occurred because the presidential candidate could get injured by the competitor in order to avoid defeat during the elections (Stephen, 89).
The main objective of each political party was to mobilize potential voters who could vote for the party. The registered voters supported the party to win the election, and the party focused on those individuals who had votes. They used many means in order to get them and convince their thoughts. The aim been convincing the voters each party had is own policy, and they stated to enhance something in the state. The republican claimed that they would change the economy of the country and improve the educating system. Others claimed that when given the opportunity they will support the economy and enhance the living standard of all individuals living in the states (Dinkin, 456).
The parties had their target group. The groups targeted included the religious group’s ethnic groups and others. The presidential candidate did not concentrate much on their own ethnic group, because they got an automatic support. Each region had to support their candidate in order to have a president in their region to improve their economy. The votes turned out for the candidate who they shared the some background. They started campaigning from the ground of their origin, and they advanced visiting many churches ranging from catholic and protestant. In religion they also visited the Muslim. They practiced charity work in order to convince the citizens that they will provide more things (Stephen, 250).
All parties prepared political rallies clubs which supported the party when the members were not around and available to campaign. The club comprised of old people, group of women and youth. The youth played a lot of the role in the campaign because some times they were used as security. The groups set to announce the events which could take place and invite individuals for campaign rallies in their region. The clubs campaigned when the officials could not have enough time to visit the people. The parties did their best to gather many votes as possible (Simon, 123).
The parties made sure that they communicate with individuals from all regions. They established a strategy to communicate from time to time with the voters. They enhanced their communication system in which they could visit people in each region at least two times a week. They used face to face communication with the voters, and individuals form all regions. They went to talk with the individuals with some gift. When they gave them the gift they could get attention from the voters, and then they applied their confusing skills (James, 790).
The second method of communication used was the publication of the advert in the newspapers. The news papers got spread to each region and those individual who can buy a newspaper bought. They read and received information on the party. They also published the party’s journals and other publication which they distributed to individuals at different regions. The individuals who could not read and get the information from the newspaper, they used to high other representatives to explain to them what the newspaper had been written on. The newspapers and journals which contained the information sometimes were given for free (Gary, 345).
Financing the parties
They did contributing to support their campaign. The wealthy leaders of the parties used to contribute for the party. Money helped a lot in the implementation and facilitation of the services taken during the campaigns. The political party which had a lot of money to facilitate their campaign won. This happened because many people got pulled by crowd easily, and they used to follow the party which had a lot of vehicles and campaigning facility for show of force (James, 205).
This was the most used mode of campaign. They used to gather individuals in places and tell them about the party. They announced about their meeting using the public address. They informed individuals on where to meet and at what time. The people lessened and responded. In order to attract a large audience, the campaigners used to give out gift to individuals so that they can come to lessen while expecting to get something at the end. The republication had other tactics, and it used crusades against the slavery. It made the people who had been taken to America as slaves to get registration. The republican gained a lot of popularity because all the slaves got registration and they also registered as voters. The republication got support from the black Americans and other ethnic groups which stayed in America but did not originate from America (Stephen, 200).
Presidential campaign in 2008
The advancement in technology made things chance in political campaigns in 2008. People advanced, and political parties change their campaigning tactics in orders to suit the new generation requirement. The new generation had advanced not like old times when the politicians used to gather individuals and give them gifts in order to get their attention. The current people can not waste their time while looking for political rallies, but they work for their living. This made the political parties change their means of campaigning. They use the technology to reach many people (William, 67).
The political parties not like before when they used army style and been organized into the chain of command system. The 2008 election all the political parties were organized as any other organization in America. They had managers and other works that ensured the operations of the party ran smoothly. The managers employed get salary from the party, and they support the party in the campaign. They employ royal people who can not betray the party by exposing the party secretes. The party consulted the political specialist to guide them on how to conduct the campaign and get more popularity (John, 400).
The campaigning in this time had a specific time for the start. Those who tried to campaign before the time got prosecuted because they violated the constitution. After the set time, for campaign come all the individuals planed on haw to start their campaign. There were campaign managers who had the task of implementation of policies and tactics to follow when campaigning. They planed for every thing and gave it out to the officials. The political parties laid down the activities to take place before they started the campaigning. They planned on which media to use, and the right time to be making out the campaign rallies (Simon, 303).
The campaigns in 2008 used media a lot to search for more votes from the registered voters. The media used include the television and other like the news papers and journals. The parties created their stories which even spread to the whole worlds. The application of Medias made Americas gain popularity because all the people across the world expected to get updates on the election. At the elections day, the results were broadcasted across the world, and the new president of America was announced to all media of the worlds. The media assisted president Obama to gain more popularity because he gained support from the black people staying in America also the Black American (James, 200).
Other source of media used was phones which they used to send short messages to all subscribers showing them the change they could give. The mobile phones were also used to down load songs, which encouraged people to support the presidential candidates. They also accessed other mobile services like inviting people for rallies and encouragement meeting. The election and campaigns contacted in 2008 had a lot of difference from the others contacted back in 19th century. The election did not have much violence as evidenced in early elections (Gary, 300).
The political parties posted their adverts to the media and other social Medias. They posted the story in certain websites, which get more customers on daily bases. This included websites like the Facebook, job collation web and other social websites. They posted their campaign there because they have more viewers at a time. Almost 80% of the total population in the world has joined Facebook. The people who visited the website gave out response and this was used to evaluate the performance of the Internet as a tool for advertisement. The government encouraged this mode of campaign because this mode could not bring up insecurity in the country (Dinkin, 203).
Most of the world people supported Barrack Obama who is a Black American and this was a delightful surprise since the people of America for a long time could not support the Black American. They were regarded to as foolish bamboos. The application of Internet assisted other African countries to support president Obama to campaign. They posted their views on the campaign, and other issues to support the Obama argument and this made many citizens in America have confidence with Obama (Lewis, 205).
All the parties just as before had to have enough capital to facilitate their campaign. The parties borrowed money from different sources, and they got support from many countries. The African countries donated money to Obama in order to fight for the seat. The members of the party contributed what they had. In this election, a lot of money was spent, not like in other election. The money was used in technology application. Many technologies used in campaigning made the parties use a lot of money which they could not have used. The sources of finance which got in use in the 2008 election sometimes early elections used them in campaigning (Jensen, 100).
The security of the 2008 election was provided by the state. The police and other security agencies ensured that there was maximum security during the campaign. They also ensured that the presidential candidate had enough security to protect them from being armed. Those who needed more security had permission to hire security from the public security officials. Not like in the early times when all the political parties used to hire their own armies to protect them during the campaign. The state security ensured that the campaign was contacted in a safe environment (William, 450).
The government officials regulate the time in which all the campaign were suppose to get contacted. All parties kept the time specified, because those who did not obey and follow the regulation got prosecuted. The government security protected all parties and did not favor any side. The elections contacted become the first election in which no much troubles occurred and safely done. The rallies were conducted at a specified time and those who did not have time to contact the rallies did not worry, because they used other tool to facilitate the campaign (Stephen, 700).
Comparison of 2008 and 19th century election
There many differences and similarities of election contacted in ancient time and of the election contacted in 2008. The application of media sources as a tool of the campaign was increasing in this time. A lot of new media services was evidenced which did not get used in the previous years. In 2008, they used Internet as a tool for the campaign and the whole world supported president barrack Obama. In the 19th century, they did not use the media. The television was used in daily or hourly bases in 2008 while in the 19th century; they could not get access to the television for many times (Simon, 45).
The security measures taken at this time were more improved than that time when the political parties used to find out their own security. The government ensures that there was enough security during campaigns and in the time of election. The means financing campaigns changed significantly. The people who campaigned in 2008 got financial assistance from many donors, and other friend contributed. The campaigns for 2008 accumulate a large number of capitals than any other election contacted on America. This was because of the improvement in technology. There some similarities between the election of 19th century and the 2008. The elections were contacted at the same place. There some policies and tools used in the campaign which are still used like rallies, newspapers and others (James, 200).
The election contacted in America has been the same for many years, but it changed during the last election contacted in America. The people of America have improved and changed that is why they decided to choose a president from the black American ethnic group. All people should accept change because change made Obama win in2008. He used the current strategies in campaigning and won.