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Saudi Arabia is an Islamic hereditary kingdom. The monarchy is ruled by a King, who is also the prime minister, head of state, government leader and the commanding head officer of the army. Since the monarchy is heritable, there are no ballot votes for the position of a King. The Basic Law implemented in 1992 confirmed that Saudi Arabia is a kingdom governed by the children (sons) of King Abdul Aziz, and that the Holy Qur'an is the nation’s Constitution, which is ruled on the foundation of Islamic regulation (Shari'ah). There are no formally acknowledged political groups. Subsequent to the initial public voting in 2005, ballot votes to choose 50% of all public councilors occurred in September 2011. The ruler has extensive supremacies with restrictions emerging from a requirement to obey Shari'a and other Saudi customs. The ruler should also uphold harmony within the Saudi noble family, spiritual heads (ulema), and other significant basics in Saudi community (Ansary, 2008).
Formerly the principal associates of the noble family select the ruler within themselves with the succeeding consent of the ulema. An Allegiance Commission was set up by King Abdullah in November 2006 to choose succeeding rulers and a Crown Prince upon the demise or incapacitation of either; a practice intended to assist in approving the selection procedure. The King assigns a Crown Prince to assist him with his obligations. The Crown Prince succeeds the ruler in command. The King rules with the assistance of the Cabinet (Congress of Ministers). The government is made up of 22 congress ministries. Every ministry concentrates on a diverse division of the regime, like foreign dealings, schooling and economics. The ruler is also counseled by a governmental organization known as the Consultative Committee (Shura). The committee recommends new rules and modifies present ones. The Consultative Committee is made up of 150 associates, who are selected by the King to serve for 4-year periods which are renewable (Bradley, 2011).
The state is separated into 13 counties, with a governor and his assistant in every county. Every region has its particular committee that counsels the governor and handles the growth of the region. The legal structure of Saudi Arabia is founded on Shari’ah, and the King is the leader of the legal system. He serves as the ultimate petition court and can give pardons in situations where the sentence is not ordered in the Holy Qur'an. The monarchy of Saudi also has courts, with the biggest being the Shari’ah Courts, which attend to nearly all suits in the Saudi judicial structure. Ministers are selected by the ruler and are accountable for executing legislative guidelines which involve their specific ministries (Fandy, 2001).
Legislation is declared by the Congress of Ministers and the Consultative Committee, approved by noble verdict, and should be in agreement with Shari'a. Therefore, justice is run in line with Shari'a by a method of spiritual courts. A 2007 decree formed a new High Court as Saudi Arabia’s Supreme Court power. The King is also allowed to have access to head executives (typically at a public meeting, which are referred to as majlis). The right to formally request them to directly do anything is a deep-rooted custom in Saudi Arabia (Fandy, 2001).
The Consultative Council’s membership was increased to 150 associates in 2005. The board also consists of women counselors, who are not allowed to vote. In the year 2010, the number of women in the Council expanded from 10 to 13. Moreover, in 2011, King Abdullah declared that females would be permitted to act as complete affiliates in the Council. Membership has altered considerably throughout development of the board since various members have not been reselected. The function of the nobly-assigned Council is progressively intensifying as it acquires experience (Lacey, 2009).