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The American Revolution War, also referred to as the American war of Independence was fought from 1775-1783 with the Kingdom of Great Britain. This war of independence led to overthrowing of British rule in the American territory and this signaled change in the history of American politics. British rule had been imposed to 13 colonial governments that were established by the Second Continental Congress, and it was till the 1775 that Revolutionaries took control of the 13 administrative territories. In 1778 the United States of America declared their independence a move that was supported by other European nations. This was ironical because the American themselves both Natives and African Americans took sides of the war as some supported the British rule while other fought for liberation. The Revolutionary War started between the US government and the British administration but ended with a series of fights that was concluded in a global war involving several European nations. Was there real revolution in view of an American patriot? There is immense criticism about what America has achieved as a nation following the war aftermaths. This essay therefore criticizes the notion that revolutionary wars put an end to economical, political and social strife. In the modern American society, citizens still face racial abuse, economic hardship and high unemployment rates leading for brain drain to other overseas economies.
The need of political revolution in America was the main cause of the war. The colonists were fed up by the legitimacy of British rule in their own territory. In a bid to start a revolt, the First Continental Congress gathered to enhance their relation with the Great Britain. Their outcries were not given a consideration and in the following year, the Second Continental Congress was formed from Provincial Congresses to forward petitions to George III to address their grievances without success. The Americans wanted their sovereignty and at the same time withdrawing their allegiance with British Monarchy which called for the declaration of their freedom in 1716. The American society today still faces challenges in the social sphere. Racial abuse, human rights abuse and existence of social classes are just the tip of the iceberg. The election of president Obama as the first African American in the US raised the question of the ability of a black president to lead America. His election showed that from the attainment of independence till recently, African Americans have never been given opportunity to serve the country in that capacity.
During revolution, France was in support of the US administration and t aided them, France supplied guns and ammunitions to the colonialists. The Continental’s rule of the British army motivated France’s intervention into the war in 1778. Dutch Republic and Spain which were former colonies of France and were by then France allies also entered the war by fighting against the British administration for the succeeding two years and even threatened to invade England; despite, their vigorous attacks on Gibraltar and Minorca. Spain’s intervention led to the defeat of British army in West Florida and this made Americans secure their colonies in the southern wing. Today the US is has strong allies in for her socio-political benefits and the unification of all nations in the world. However, diplomatic ties with such nations like Iran, North Korea and to some extend China continue to widen. As a super power the US feels obligated to protect the world and as a result any threat of nuclear weaponry emanating from North Korea and Iran is an American problem that threatens her diplomatic ties. War on terrorism is also a problem that has created tension between US and terrorists’ countries. Afghanistan was invaded by US troop in a bid to crush the Al-Qaeda network and charge terror suspects with a series of terror attacks. Civilians have perished in the melee and this has caused hate by Afghans to the USA as a nation.
Before the war begun, the 13 colonies that were led by American governments had no established/well trained troops. The only source of manpower was militia groups who were not well armed, lacked official clothes, and had no skills in conducting a war. Their services could not fully be depended on as they could fight for a few weeks and then recede to their homes. The militias were also not willing to advance far away from home just for fighting’s sake and therefore, they could not be fully depended on during war operations. This therefore meant that the legitimate troops would be overwhelmed especially at the battles of Saratoga, Bennington and Concord.
George Washington was appointed leader of Continental Army because of the dire need of training military troops back in 1775. Continental Army was a project that was secured and in progress; though, Washington still monitored and coordinated the efforts of the militia groups. This is because Washington had to plan in advance so as to know the exact number of militia that would join the force. In November 1775, Continental Marines was also set up by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia to aid in opposing the British rule after a resolution by the Continental Congress. The entire army consisting even of the militia was disbanded in 1783 after the Revolutionary cause was purposely attained amid a below the standards troop size according to European standards.
Native Americans were critically affected by the war especially those who resided on the east of River Mississippi. This population was confused in regards to what front to support during the war. Majority of this group were opposed to the Americans ideals of resisting the British rule because they feared that their territory could be taken by the American government later on. The largest group that supported the British rule came from Iroquois tribe. Iroquois Confederacy was a powerful one but due to the fight, they conflicted, with a group supporting the colonialists and the other supporting the British. Sullivan Expedition was sent to Iroquois to destroy them because of their opinion to support the British rule. Finally, there was role played by the African Americans as they served in Continental Army after George Washington lifted the ban on enlistment of blacks in the army. The reason for Washington’s action followed after the Continental Army was overwhelmed by troop shortage amid the need to resist British offensives. Following this move, they were promised freedom from slavery and as a result they fought for the Revolutionary cause.
Freedom of Americans is the sole obligation of the government and this must not be tied to any condition. Independence and freedom must address the growing bureaucracy where the electorates are seen as a ladder to leadership after which their issues are not adequately addressed. Unemployment rate is high in America and this has affected major economic sectors in the US including housing. Mortgages are becoming unaffordable for a number of citizens yet it is the responsibility of the government to provide citizens with descent housing and other basic human needs.
Limitations of the British Rule in Revolutionary War
The Americans were greatly supported by the international community; the French administration, Spain, and the Dutch Republic. Another thing that worked in their favor was the logistical problems faced by the British rule because they had to operate from the port cities. Americans were also adequately supplied with food, terrain mastery not withstanding and these worked in their favor against the British soldiers. The British also had an ineffective communication problem and they had to wait for ships to and from The Great Britain for official communication regarding the war, after which action could be taken. At times information feedback was received after becoming irrelevant as this period took approximately two months.
It was difficult to suppress rebellion in America due to a number of inadequacies. Colonies were in command of larger territories without a centralized location for strategic organization. It was a general concept that whenever a city was captured, end of war would be reached but this was not the case for British rule. For example, despite the seizure of Philadelphia and New York cities, there was no cease fire in the war. The colonies were large and given the British lack of manpower to impose their rule, they were overwhelmed. Any areas that were conquered needed to be backed by manpower to maintain control. At the same time American Revolutionaries continued their fight for independence and lack of adequate soldiers limited British offensive operations to suppress the ambitious Revolutionaries. The British could defeat the Americans in war but they lacked people that would remain to occupy the colonies. Their manpower shortage was further aggravated by French and Spanish entry into the war.
Consequently, the Revolutionary War had a number of effects as both the American and British suffered while others lost their lives. The war led to a number of deaths; but, the number could not be ascertained because in those periods diseases claimed a number of lives too. It was also difficult to distinguish which deaths occurred following small pox epidemic of 1775-1782 and which one resulted from the aftermath of the war. Washington’s move to have all his soldiers inoculated against smallpox was hailed as it played a very important role in ensuring the health of his soldiers was not compromised.
The results of any given war are always of benefit mainly to the generations of the future rather than those who fought. The Revolutionary War of the United States was a war that led to attainment of independence of the US by Americans from the rule of the British Empire. Lives of Americans were lost during the war but today we enjoy the fruits of our freedom fighters and most importantly, the role that was played by the Commander-in-Chief; George Washington. In a war they are winners and losers and in this instance, the British lost and the United States won and got their independence. Several years after the war Americans still face problems at the national and global levels. Diplomatic ties with a number of nations and the social, political and economic problems facing the USA make opponents of the success of Revolutionary Wars to make a valid statement that a lot still ought to be done.