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Introduction

The current perspectives in psychology outline the latest developments and discoveries across psychological and behavioral science.  The current psychological perspectives explore topics, such as learning, intelligence, stress trauma, anxiety, interpersonal relationships, brain development and various stages of life development from childhood to adulthood. This paper explores the current perspectives, in psychology.

Discussion

The current perspectives in psychology have used the current advances in technology, research, methods, applications and theories to explain their core arguments. In the early years of psychological development, different schools of psychology dominated. However, the 1960s period marked a change in psychological methodologies and perspectives. Each of the current perspectives, in psychology, has its own way of deliberation (Nita Tewari).

The biological perspective also known as biophysiology or physiological psychology emphasizes physical and biological attributes, as bases for behavior that people display. The perspective has developed in a fast pace, in the recent few decades. The advances in the ability to study the human brain and nervous system contributed to the growth of the biological perspective.

The behavioral perspective focuses on the learning of behaviors.  Psychologists who support this perspective state that people learn behaviors. Psychologists such as Skinner and John Watson contributed towards the growth of the behaviorism perspective. The perspective states that behaviors can occur through associations, for example, in the experiment that Pavlov did using a dog.  It also states that behaviors occur through punishments and rewards. Rewards increase the occurrence of a certain behavior while punishments decrease the occurrence of a certain behavior. B.F Skinner used operant conditioning to explain this phenomenon. 

Reinforcements act as vital segments, when learning a certain behavior. Today, behavior analysis that came forth from behaviorism helps as a therapeutic intervention, to help children with autism and certain development delays. It helps them to acquire skills though learning and motivation. Behaviorism postulates that one can understand people, their actions and problems by observing their behavior. It has the belief that all people have the same characteristic at birth. However, the environment where they live shapes people differently. Psychologists who support the perspective reject retrospective methods of studying behavior. The cognitive perspective came in to the existence, in the 1960s. This perspective focuses on mental processes, such as memory, problem solving, thinking, language and decision-making processes. The perspective got contributions from psychologists, such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura (Nita Tewari).

The cross-cultural perspective has come into existence recently. The psychologists who support this perspective look at behavior across various cultures. By looking at cultural differences, we understand how cultures influence how people think and behave. The main argument of this perspective lies on the cultural influence on the behavior of individuals.

The evolutionary perspective focuses on how evolution explains physiological processes. Psychologists and researchers consider the basic principles of evolution, such as natural selection and use them, in relation to psychological phenomena. The perspective postulates that the existence of mental processes serves evolutionary purposes of reproduction and survival (Nita Tewari).

The humanistic perspective came in to the existence, in the 1950s. Psychologists such as Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow contributed to this perspective. It emphasizes the role of motivation on behavior and thought.  Self-actualization and safety among other aspects matter because of their significance. These aspects exist in the Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

The last, current psychological perspective involves the psychodynamics perspective that emphasizes the unconscious mind, interpersonal relations and early childhood experiences as bases of human behavior and a treatment for mental illnesses. Sigmund Freud contributed to this perspective.

Conclusion

Current perspectives in psychology argue their main points using different viewpoints. Some of these perspectives relate to each other while others differentiate completely. Despite that, they help us to understand the origins of human behavior, the reasons behavior manifestations, how people think and respond to certain issues, in life.

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