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Values are the ideals, principles, beliefs, practices and confessions that we hold dear to us and they also guide our thought processes and our actions as well
Religion is a belief system or faith system that is embraced and practiced by a people and whose doctrines, values, code of ethics and behavior and standards are set and practiced. Religiosity focuses on the degree of commitment to someone's faith and has very little to do with the content of that particular faith.
This is a deep connection with a world beyond the physical realms. It is a state that involves meditation, prayer and ritualistic approaches that establish a higher sense of being and purpose in the life of the person.
d) Descriptive values
This is the moral reasoning behind a value/action as opposed to the action itself.
e) Prescriptive values
This is the opposite of descriptive values; they have to do with the act of applying values and not the subject matter of the values in question.
Transculturation is a state of human events and macro-social interactions that have to do with the coming together of different and distinct cultures to form a new and continued culture from the existing ones. This is a term that was originated by Fernando Ortiz, a Cuban Anthropologist in the year 1940 while studying the convergence of cultures.
g) Code of Ethics
This is a set of principles, values and guidelines usually on social issues that any organization, groups, societies and corporations among others systems, observe in order to create a harmonious sense of existence and role play among groups or pluralistic individuals.
h) Active consent
This form of consent involves agreeing to participate in a research study by signing a form or any other form of evidence that shows agreement to participate in the research study. The consent is given firsthand by the person to participate in the study.
i) Passive consent
This form of consent is especially common when doing a research among minors and one needs to obtain consent from the parent or guardian of the minor. A document can be provided for signing and only returned if the parent/guardian does not wish for the minor to participate in the research.
j) Liberatory ethics
These are ways or methodologies of studying the societal structures and socioeconomic polarities that are in motion which, according to radical theorists, hinder, compel and enslave social justice, progress and human development. They also propose alternatives of dealing with the present state of affairs in an attempt to push for reforms within the community.
3. "You sold your soul." The chapter has a lengthy discussion of soul and its essential place in values. It varies from person to person by definition and experience.
a. Why is this a crucial dynamic that sets apart community psychologists from others?
The community psychologists are directly involved with matters that bombard the human psyche on a daily basis. They look at the interaction between the personal, interpersonal and
societal relationships that exist among individuals. The focus of their study is basically the wholesomeness of the person within the community.
"...Thus, community psychologists grapple with an array of social and mental health problems and they do so through research and interventions in both public and private community settings" (Perkins, 2009, p.1)
b. What threatens the integrity of soul in community psychologist work?
When the soul is looked upon as an entity that stands apart from the environment of interaction then that isolation prevents the soul from developing. It therefore becomes impossible to draw patterns and create possible breakthroughs for the wellbeing of the soul. Again the impediment of soul-belief creates another obstacle in the sense that if one cannot separate their beliefs from what is real, feasible, and practical and regular then they end up limiting their ability to reason beyond that belief. Otto et al says the following about the belief of the departed soul in relation to human development,
"Ancestors' spirits are sacred-taboo- because they are feared and because the permanence of the human race depends on them, given the belief in immortality..." (Otto Rank, Gregory C. Richter, E. James Lieberman, 2002, p.14)
It follows thus, that those areas that cannot be questioned, examined or explored due to the soul-belief, then it becomes impossible for the community psychologist to offer help in those areas.
c. What does this mean in terms of boundaries around what we can do or not do and what others may try to impose upon community psychologists?
Community psychologists look at different spheres that affect the whole person. They cannot look at phenomena in isolation but through patterns of interrelation. Again the study of community psychologists encompasses any and all subject matters relating to the person in whole. So the only limiting factor here is the design and method of study; namely research and intervention that is unique to the community psychology, but not the extent or subject matter; as long as it touches on the well being of an individual in relation to the community around them, it can be studied by community psychologists.
d. Rethink some earlier discussions about burn out. Remember that I tried to stress that it cuts far deeper than exhaustion or other symptoms.
What does this discussion of values bring to the discussion of burnout?
Values evaluate someone's strengths and weaknesses and prevent them from making unrealistic goals or unachievable work schedules. This in turn ensures that one does not overestimate their capability to work and thus compromise their integrity of work. Burnout is essentially caused by unfulfilled goals or unyielding attempt to rectify a situation. Therefore when someone looses sight of what they can and can't do, they slowly drift in the direction of burnout.