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The issue of human nature has turned out to be central to the leading intellectual debates, particularly on political organization. This is intended for individual understands that human nature influences each person's prescriptions concerning how best the society has to be governed. As a result, the social order imperatives are considered important, especially if they are viewed in a way that accommodates the various complexities of human nature. Therefore, it is through appreciation of such dimensions in human nature that people can hopefully develop an enduring social order. A comprehensive account on the nature of man should explain the self-consciousness, desire to live a purposeful life as well as the freedom from all external interferences, being distinctive and the desire to acquire own property (Fayemi, 2008).
According to LeBuffe (2002, p.11) bases his argument on Holbach's naturalism, stating that the human nature can be well understood through human actions examined in the universal determinism and through laws. Careful studies on the positions of human differences indicate that the various disputes which have undertaken the centre-stage of the metaphysics level have extended to the political realm. This is reflected in people's conception of human nature components and the place a human being holds as well as the role played in the society provides serious implications for the social ordering. The study examines the various conceptions of human nature and how the best social order affects the human being within a society (Fayemi, 2008).
Based on the economic perception of human nature, capitalism has been considered as the main cause of the entire human woes that involve deriving legitimacy from the current organization of society in a manner through which the economic elites have full control over power and resources. Suggestions have been made that the currently made observations on human nature not only need to be appreciated for their assumptions, but also regarding the conclusions reached so far. This implies that a comprehensive understanding of human nature carries far-reaching implications on the social ordering process. Furthermore, the human nature holds a prominent place within the range of explanations as well as justifications embedded in the popular consciousness. This consciousness is largely considered to be accountable for the various perceptions that people have on their society.
However, some scholars have failed to recognize that a human person comprise of both social and individual dimensions. Such failures have been centrally placed on the sanctimonious posture reflected in the assumptions made by capitalist and socialist, emerging as the two main challenging ideologies within the world. These two portrays rational view of human nature to the level that within its classical forms the capitalist assumption, advocates minimum government in the attempt to safeguard each person's freedom. On the other hand, socialist assumption affirms that socialist revolution cannot be perfected unless the affected state withers away. This should be aimed at giving people the opportunity to co-exist without necessarily adhering to the regulations of the political authority (Opafola, 2008).
The enhancement of social order is germane as well as deserving a continuous adjustment in order to ensure that individual worth is appreciated and to have a sustained social order. For instance, the current international economic crisis suggests that an extremist conception of the human nature is expected to lead to development of social order and in the violent rupture of the harmonious environment in which majority of the individual desires. Studies show that theories on human nature revolve around responding to questions such as the need to discover the fundamental nature underlying human being and the constituents of his or her essence. As a result, debates on the nature of human nature have to a larger extent drawn the attention of psychologists, sociologists, natural scientists and philosophers. For example, some scholars perceive individual human being to be a finished product of a society, while others consider the human nature as the product of biological influence that can be well explained in genetic codes. However, the underlying issue the presupposition which states that when the actual nature of human being is openly known, either his or her current and future actions can be explained, predicted as well as controlled. Social re-engineering aimed at achieving social stability could be one of the developments upon successful comprehension of a true nature of human being (Fayemi, 2008).
Political, social and economic thoughts have to be grounded within the theory human nature. In case one fails to exist, the social critics fill the vacuum with any theory. Most psychologists study the human nature as a scientific discipline. Human Nature is committed to advancing the interdisciplinary examination of the biological, social as well as environmental factors that underlie the human behavior. It focuses mainly on the functional unity through which such factors are continuously and jointly interactive. The whole idea include the evolutionary, sociological and the biological processes as they make their interactions with the human social behavior such as the biological as well as demographic consequences of the human history, cross-cultural and cross-species, historical perceptions on human behavior; and the significance of a biosocial point of view to the scientific, social, and strategic issues (Opafola, 2008).
Social order is perceived as something other than and relatively a hindrance to human being's natural development. Various assumptions have been, indicating that an ordinary human being is self-sufficient in most cases and can make his or her own improvements if left alone. In relation to the social limitations, human beings do not have existence a part from the social order. This implies that individuals can develop their personality only through adhering to social order and on the same level of its development. In addition, the social order is considered to be antithetical to the human freedom only if it very bad. However, freedom can only be achieved in and through the social order, and as a result should be increased by the entire health growth of social order (Zanden, 1997).
The idea of human nature though appears to be boundless and enigmatic in some areas may all the same be approached through scientific methods. Human beings are perceived as bundles of trends to activities. Currently, there are no accepted classifications of such tendencies that meet the individual's needs. However, sociology is expected to give very special attention to the trends that lead human being into relations with his or her kind. For instance, the tendency of human being to seek knowledge as well as make use it to for the self-control, turns out to be a distinctive human quality. The slow maturing of the human intelligence and other qualities identifies human beings as the most educable of entire animals. This is simply because individuals differ in the rate and level at which their qualities are development. Philosophy has always supported that the different forms of good were merely separate views on a similar idea that is applicable to the notions such as on freedom, rights and progress. Therefore, human beings' freedom can be regarded as a simple individual aspect that reflects progress in human development and the two are related as individual and in terms of social order enhancement. The conception of human nature as something that can be taken by makes social order to appear elusive (Fayemi, 2008).
Hobbes examined human beings as individuals with their own foibles, arguing that they are not beasts that have to be tamed at all costs. Studies also reveal that human beings are freedom-seeking beings whose priority is considered to be self-preservation. Such individuals make the recognition of their fellow human beings' indispensability in achieving their aspirations. This is because they are bound to circumstances in which other people's interests are largely intertwined with theirs. Additionally, human beings are identified as social creatures based on the length of their helpless infancy, through which people are dependent on the training provided by fellow human beings in the society. Such training entirely relies on the learning process carried out through a given a language as well as of necessity which requires stable groups, for example, human family or the kinship group that can enable its effective provision (Opafola, 2008).
The Social Order imperatives
Tranquility has been evidently considered as a crucial condition in developing the rest of other creative initiatives as an attempt to foster a society that is well organized, and for the overall well-being of its entire members. This presents social order as the function of a social control problem in relation to the development and maintenance issues of social order in which each person can effectively exercise their own rights, realize their legitimate human potentials as well as perform their assigned obligations. Therefore, meaningful existence is dependent upon the level at which a society is capable of institutionalizing the frameworks that sustain the enhanced social harmony and prevent the rise of human conflict. This implies that the social system and schemes of relations largely influence the political, economic as well as social objections, rights, entitlements, roles and duties of people within a society. Social order involves the harmonious balancing of each strata of life in the manner that human being is entirely affected by such elements of life.
According Zanden (1997, p.153) discovered certain features of social order of which he considers that without them, a society would be on the rock face. Such features include stability, predictability, regularity and organization, arguing that the attainment of social order ought to be based on a complete apprehension of the social roles. However, other authors' views indicate that apprehension of the social roles with its entire value cannot be fully entrusted for the adequate attainment of both peace and order in a society. Individuals are not only expected to understand their obligations, but also value some other things as possessing the capacity to give them more meaningful lives. From the above discussion, it evidently shows that the attempt to reel out an inclusive list of what it entails to acquire social order turns out to be a herculean task. In other words, efficient systems of political freedom, economic empowerment, internal as well as external security and justice are some of the major elements that an orderly society cannot prosper without them. In addition, social order based on Lockean approach is obtained when individuals are able to enjoy their liberal rights. This enjoyment should not violate other people's liberty.
Hobbes' hypothetical view on human argues that human nature does not entail the basic egoism that tends to create conflicts under certain conditions such as social order breakdowns. However, Hobbes examines human nature basing his desire on the application of the external moral principles, comfort as well as peace, use of reason and the creation of social order so as to ensure that peace as the ultimate account for individual's being out of a natural condition is maintained. The central interpretation of Hobbes' argument considers the state of human nature as depicting a location of actual, competitive violence from the human past that to some extent persists within the current human. It concerns Hobbes saying that the human beings are fated through their egoistic as well as aggressive psychology in order to continue within the self-destructive violence in anticipation of the forced to cease from acting so against their leaning and their will. This entails the imposition of both the social and political order as the relevant external authority whose exclusive but more powerful rationale is its capacity to maintain the social peace in spite of people's fundamentally disruptive human nature (Zanden, 1997).
On the other hand, the Darwinian perspective on human beings' conceptual as well as linguistic skills would be considered as contingencies rooted within capacities capable of developing biologically. Such skills would have been acquired through selective pressures from the extensive possible notion of the survival-related activities as well as behaviors. For instance, the human being's ability to divine and in responding to the sense of what each other's feelings are, is considerably not able to confer more of the adaptive value in relation to perception that human beings are agonistic social atoms. In the argument of human nature, Howard Gardner considers the best approaches understanding the nature of human beings as those that recognize their incompleteness in something (LeBuffe (2002).
Gardner provided a suggestion that disciplines of applicable studies to illuminating the aspects of human nature ought to be understood as those existing on a continuum, from a more expressive philosophical, humanistic and literary writing related to human subjectivity to a more explanatory scientific as well as theoretical writing that concerns individual's objectivity or the general human being. The conceptions of approaches at either the end of this range are bounded to the extent they are examined as apart from the other. However, this is due to the different aspects of human being's need to be handled differently based on either the scientific or literary-philosophical ends of the range. Therefore, Gardner's model can be considered to be very useful in viewing the human nature within the context of the foregoing discussion on Darwinism. Human beings are conclusively the kind of being whose their objective historical appearance and existence can be well accounted for in a credible reconstructive account within the context of scientific assumptions (Zanden, 1997).
Social order imperatives are important, especially if they are viewed in a way that accommodates the various complexities of human nature. It is through appreciation of such dimensions in human nature that people can hopefully develop an enduring social order. A comprehensive account on the nature of man should explain the self-consciousness, desire to live a purposeful life as well as the freedom from all external interferences, being distinctive and the desire to acquire own property. The human nature holds a prominent place within the range of explanations as well as justifications embedded in the popular consciousness. This consciousness is entirely accountable for the various perceptions that people have on their society. Social re-engineering aimed at achieving social stability could be one of the developments upon successful comprehension of a true nature of human being.
Political, social and economic thoughts have to be grounded within the theory human nature. The social order is antithetical to the human freedom only if it very bad. However, freedom can only be achieved in and through the social order, and as a result should be increased by the entire health growth of social order. The idea of human nature though appears to be boundless and enigmatic in some areas may all the same be approached through scientific methods. Human beings are perceived as bundles of trends to activities. Therefore, social order as the function of a social control problem in relation to the development and maintenance issues of social order in which each person can effectively exercise their own rights, realize their legitimate human potentials as well as perform their assigned obligations.