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In human psychology, the concept of human development takes one of the most essential topics of discussion. Human development occurs in different stages. Each stage has its unique characteristics and features that make stages different from one other. Human development marks the most significant part of human life because it involves mental, social, psychological, physical and psychomotor development. This paper looks at human developmental psychology, motivation, and emotions that occur in human beings.
Infancy and childhood marks the early part of the development of human beings. This period involves a rapid development in sense and perceptual development, cognitive development, language development, moral development, social development and personal development. This marks the period when the child starts understanding the world and the people around him, he starts communicating with the people around him, starts walking, and forming a sense of the things that happen around him. Infancy and childhood involve a stage in life when every part of the human body develops progressively. At this time, human beings require healthy foods and care to help them in their development. At this time, infants form attachments with their caregivers (Kuther, 2000).
John lived with an extended family where he interacted with his siblings and relatives while young. They helped him develop socially, morally cognitively and in language development. This environment influenced his development during infancy and childhood. Psychosocial development refers to the development of trust, autonomy, industry, initiative, identity, generativity, intimacy and ego integrity. This development begins at infancy and progresses to adulthood. Psychosocial development functions as the relationship that a person shares with his environment from infancy to adulthood. According to Eric Erikson psychosocial developments have stages. The first stage involves the development of trust that occurs from birth to twelve months. Autonomy follows from one to two years. Initiative follows from three to five years; industry and identity occur between ages twelve to eighteen. Intimacy, generativity and ego identity close this development and occur from age eighteen to twenty to over sixty years (Rathus, 2010).
John formed trust with his caregivers that included his mother and other close family members during his childhood years. He developed his personal control and autonomy with initiative as he progressed from one stage of life to the other. The adolescent marks the period when children seek their own discovery. A lot of confusion and disorientation characterizes the period. This period lasts between the age of thirteen and nineteen. In his adolescence, john grew up experiencing all the six stages of Kohlberg's moral reasoning. The society had set rules and regulations that each person had to observe. For instance, john had to follow the rules and regulations that his school had set. Failure to observe those rules would result to punishment, such as suspension. The society punished people who broke rules by jailing them. John became aware of individualism and exchange, which helped him realize people have differences even when it comes to similar things.
John also valued good interpersonal relationships with his peers knowing that the society expected him to behave properly. This helped him maintain social order and did not find himself at the receiving end because of bad behavior. In his adolescent age, john learnt that expectations that the society has on him as a person and his individual rights in the society. All these made john realize that people operate through a democratic process that help inform their actions with regard to universal principles. John has just passed the adolescent age and got into adulthood. He has not yet taken up most of adult responsibilities expected of him by the society, such as marriage, procreation and contributing to society.
John has had the need and drive to achieve success in his education and become one of the most significant neurosurgeons in his society. Since his entrance in to school as a child, john has achieved success in every stage that he has passed through, which has made him gain a lot of knowledge. During his high school, john took time to research on the profession he would want to join after schooling. He got interested in neurosurgery. His motivation in becoming a neurosurgeon came from the fact that neurosurgeons earn a lot of money and the society respects them. Therefore, he wanted to get that respect and earn a lot of money when he completes school. The comfort and the rewards that the job offers motivated john to work hard for it. Currently, john has graduated as a neurosurgeon, and he works in one of the largest health institutions in his society.
From the life of john, I have learnt certain lessons with regard to my own carrier. I have learnt that the experiences that people pass through during infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Societal values that exist in these stages influence how people grow up in to adulthood. The decisions that people make during their adolescence influences their future. The motivations influence people to reach their potential. When motivations combine with personal interests they help, people achieve their dreams. Motivations help considerably in need fulfillment. People have different needs in life and get motivations from different things. However, when people expect to get rewards by doing certain things or engaging in certain behaviors, they work hard because those rewards act as their motivation (Watson & Skinner, 2004).
Developmental psychology refers to the study of social, mental, psychosocial and physical changes that occur throughout the lifespan of a human being. It covers all topics and dynamics of growth and development. Therefore, for people to understand all aspects of growth and development, motivations and need fulfillment they should study developmental psychology.