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The major domains of human development are cognitive development, physical development, and socio-emotional development. Cognitive development can be defined as the increment of awareness complexity, including comprehending, conceptualizing, reasoning out, and passing judgment by adjustment into the immediate environment as well as acculturation of information acquired. In this case thought processes are built, including problem solving, decision making, and the ability to remember right from infancy through youth to maturity (Gardner, 1990).
According to Torrance (1996), socio-emotional development comes about once learning delicacy and truthfulness are combined while an individual interacts with others in a positive way within the society they live in. The social aspect particularly refers to interaction with people while the emotional aspect refers to appropriate controlling and understanding of one's emotions. A suitable blend and synchronization of emotional and social development is significant to enhancing a meaningful and satisfying life.
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The socio-emotional development starts right at birth. While an individual grows, he is conscious of his conduct, both suitable and unsuitable. When an individual is about five years of age, he develops friendships and shows interest in dramatics and creative play. At age of schooling, an individual will keep hold of his understanding and will continue adding to it with every day's learning. The majority children can be able to convey their emotions by the way of verbalization. Even though at this age bouts of jealously within peers are general, encouraging fortification and instruction by the parents will enable a child to comprehend and have power over his emotions. Disobedience is as well characteristic at this particular age, but those parents who have understood their socio-emotional skills indubitably cope with the challenge in a positive way (Doherty & Bailey, 2003).
Physical development focuses on the physical growth as well as the development of both fine and gross motor and how they control the body. Physical development entails the advance of a baby's control over physical co-ordination of the muscles and the capability to stand and sit as the child's initial developments of growth. Increasing complexity of awareness, including perceiving, conceiving, reasoning, and judging, through adaptation to the environment and acculturation of information. Physical development is the type of development that includes the changes in the physique of an individual right from birth through youth to maturity. The physical changes for every individual varies, but are led by milestones attained throughout definite series of age (Wren, 1997).
Learning to control the processes of one's physique including muscular coordination and control is fundamental to the physical development of mankind. Physical growth and development gives way for an individual to interact with the external environment. Determining factors, for instance genetics, disease, family, nutrition, culture, and body size contribute to the manner in which individuals develop physically. Physical development can either be improved or suppressed depending on the above mentioned factors. Developing fine and gross motor skills constitutes the aspects that bring about physical growth. Fine motor skills constitute of coordination and dexterity characteristically involving the manipulation by hands and fingers. Gross motor skills constitutes of strength, balance, throwing, posture, running, and walking (Gardner, 1990).
According to Newman (2008), many studies have made it clear that physical activity allows for an influential motivation to the brain. This is obvious since brain cells demand a sufficient flow of blood to make sure that there is proper operation and therefore healthy development, particularly in children. Physical education is a very important necessity in the school curriculum since it ensures that each and every student participates fully to confront challenges close to their confines. Many students spend their time on the playing fields or in the gymnasium. This is very important, and their passion must be promoted. On the other hand, some students are not interested in physical activities for instance the ones provided in sports, and therefore it is essential that educators uncover suitable ways of involving these students in an appropriate program of physical activity. Some schools have discovered that exercise programs at individual level are of great advantage to students involved, contrary to events that involve teamwork, and therefore they have brought in such programs as substitute alternatives for those students who may require them.
A very important advantage of physical activity is the enhancement of the academic accomplishment of many students. Students require physical activity to be included in the class timetable so that to avoid every day's sedentary activities within the classroom setting. Physical activities incorporated in the school day may increase overall academic performance. It is advisable that sedentary classroom activities are to be combined with physical activities, and the association should be included in the entire educational content if students are to benefit. This resource centers on the school related physical activity chances beyond physical education, even though a number of the activities can as well be utilized within a lesson of physical education (Laker, 2001).
The relationship existing between intellectual development and habitual physical activity is obviously established that in educational world at present, most school authorities have declared physical education to be compulsory for each and every student. This appears to be employed both in high schools and elementary schools, which is very suitable and supporting since, it can distinguish the significant requirement for physical activity at earlier stages of an individual's development while in school.
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The physical activity practices of individuals at the stage of adolescence are very essential since they play a most important role in determining adult patterns of involvement. On the other hand physical activities have a first hand consequence on the adolescent's present health condition. Physical activities become of significant importance to the adolescents' lives during the stages of rapid growth they undergo. This is because for the adolescents, physical activity aids in building and maintaining health muscles, joints, and bones; prevents or holds up the advance of high blood pressure and serves in reducing blood pressure in those adolescents suffering from hypertension; and this can as well aid in building lean muscles, reducing fats, and controlling weight (Gardner, 1990).
The wide-ranging school physical activity policies can only cater for every day's needs of students concerning physical activity as well as encouraging lifelong involvement; besides, they have the capability to absolutely influence student feelings regarding school and academic work. In the culture of mankind physical activity and sports forms a considerable part. Those who do not participate altogether are very much disadvantaged when it comes to potential worth of life.
According to Wadden & Stunkard (2004), obesity is defined as a medical situation in which surplus body fat has accrued to the degree that it can pose an undesirable effect on an individual's health, resulting to diminished life expectancy as well as increased health tribulations. Obesity raises the probability of being attacked by a variety of diseases, for instance difficulties of breathing during sleep, osteoarthritis, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. Obesity is generally frequently induced by a combination of a lot of dietary calories, hormonal disorders, lack of physical activity, and genetic vulnerability, even though a small number of occurrences are caused mainly by genes. Adolescents are the most commonly affected. The most important treatment for obesity is physical activity and dieting.
Goldstein (2005) suggests that the genetic tendency to obesity can be diminished by mean of 40% through improved physical activity. Even if the entire population can gain from a physically active standard of living, in part by reduced obesity jeopardy, the study expresses that those individuals having a genetic tendency to obesity can gain even more.