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Free Schizophrenia and its Aspects Essay Sample

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1. Define and discuss theories related to the cause. Schizophrenia is a persistent and inexplicable psychological disorder associated with the degeneration of the emotional sensitivity and the thought processes. It's causal theories include genetic theory and developmental theory. Genetic theory explains how genetic variations are instrumental in causing schizophrenia. A combination of genetic and environmental factors is the leading causes of the disorder. Another causal theory is developmental theory. This involves pathophysiology and the study of the disorder. It assumes that complications during brain development cause the disorder.

The effects of schizophrenia are profound and involve all aspects of the person's life. Discuss in detail the physical sociological, psychological, and spiritual impact of the illness on the individual. Schizophrenia makes one disorganized due to detachment from the reality. For example, patients cease to observe hygiene. Socially, patients withdraw and keep away from other people. They also get confused. Psychologically, victims get suicidal due to depression. They can also get alcoholic and smoke heavily. Spiritually, these patients they fail to acknowledge God's power in their lives. Some believe that they should die since they belong to the Satan.

2. Describe the progression of symptoms from the prepsychotic phase (prodromal symptoms) to the acute phase of schizophrenia.
The first stage of the disorder is prodromal stage, which is the year prior to the disease; early signs and symptoms. Here, victims withdraw and isolate themselves from other people. They also lose interest, motivation and get emotionally disturbed. This is followed by the acute stage that involves the victims experience psychotic signs like disorganized conduct, delusions and hallucinations.

3. List the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and discuss (a) their response to traditional and atypical antipsychotic medications (b) their effect on quality of life (c) their significance for the prognosis of the disease. There are positive and negative symptoms of the disorder. Positive symptoms include high sensitivity, delusions, grandeur, and unrealistic beliefs. Negative symptoms include withdrawal, decline in bodily processes, disinterest, lack of motivation, monotone and moodiness.

The positive symptoms can be minimized by antipsychotic medication. Nevertheless, this medication has no effect on the negative symptoms. Atypical antysychotic drugs are more effective since they reduce many negative side effects. Both traditional and atypical medications have limitations and benefits. They can reduce the symptoms although also have negative side effects. Some of them cause side effects like diabetes, metabolic syndrome and weight gain. Medication reduces the prognosis of the disorder.

4. List and discuss the medications used to treat schizophrenia. Include expected effected, side effects, and contraindications of the drugs. Some of the schizophrenia medications include the traditional antipsychotic medications and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The traditional antipsychotic drugs include Haldol, haloperidol, Trifluoperazine, Molindone, Loxapine, Thiothixene and chlorpromazine. Though they are effective, they have vital side effects. Atypical antipsychotic drugs include Risperdal, Seroquel, Abilify, Clozapine and Gedeon. These can cause dry mouth, tremor, restlessness, muscle spasms or poor vision. These can be minimized by reducing dosage. They are more efficient than the traditional drugs but have negative side effects. Some of the contraindications of the traditional medication include constipation, urinary retention, coronary artery disease, Parkinson's disease and seizure disorder. Atypical medication has contraindications that include agranulocytosis, extra pyramidal effects and weight gain.

5. Outline a teaching plan for a client with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Include biopsychosocial spiritual aspects of care. Discuss the crucial role of each discipline in the delivery of care. (Medical (psychiatrist) Nursing, social work, chaplain, counselor).
The teaching plan for the schizophrenia client involve explaining how to use medication, and the unique learning challenges of a victim and factors concerned in observance with the disorder. The biopschosocial spiritual aspects of care are crucial. The psychiatrist takes care of the client's needs while a nurse deals with the medication and monitoring of patients. Social worker helps in bringing the client close to other people in order to minimize withdrawal. The counselor listens to the client and guides him or her on ways of managing the situation. Chaplain's role is to handle the spiritual beliefs of the client. (Addictive Disorders)

Abuse is the abnormal way of using a certain substance or drug. It can also refer to the use of a psychoactive drug without any medical intention. Addiction is a chronic condition of associated with overusing drugs. It is an irresistible, uncontainable desire for substances or alcohol despite its negative effects. Tolerance is an individual's reduced reaction to a drug due to the repeated use of it, hence making the body adapt to it. Physical dependence refers to the situation results from overuse of a substance which led to tolerance. In this condition, discontinuation of the drug causes negative side effects. Alcohol withdrawal involves a set of symptoms that appear as a result of abrupt stop of alcohol consumption after a serious indigestion. Disease concept of alcoholism. The concept of alcoholism explains that the alcoholism sometimes results from distorted brain construction and function. (ETOH) Alcohol Delirium as a medical emergency. It is a chronic form of alcohol withdrawal that is concerned with an abrupt and serious mental or neurological development. It can happen after excessive drinking without food. Treatment of substance abuse. This involves seeking medical attention so as to reduce the impacts of the drug abuse.

6. Discuss risk factors of substance abuse inherent in the nursing profession. This might lead to improper medication of the patients and influence the adolescents' drug abuse. This is because nurses are entrusted with private questions from various people.

7. Discuss warning signs and symptoms of substance abuse in nurses. Nurses who abuse drugs are irritable, untidy, perform poorly and moody. They also have many medication mistakes, do not report to work or come late. (Eating Disorders)

8. Define and discuss treatment of anorexia nervosa. This is an eating condition that involves refusal to uphold a fit body mass and a compulsive dread of becoming overweight. It can be treated by using psychotherapy, support groups, medication and hospitalization.

9. Define and discuss treatment of bulimia nervosa. This is an eating condition connected with restraining of food intake for a prolonged time followed by overeating. It treatment involves drugs and psychological counseling.

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