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1. The theory of Gestalt cam into contemporary psychology and philosophy when it was first introduced by the member of the school of Brentano, Christian von Ehrenfels. The concept is believed to have its rooted in theories fronted by Immanuel Kant, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Ernst Mach. Among the unique contribution by Max Wertheimer was his argument that Gestalt perceptually defined the primary parts of which it was composed instead of the secondary components that results or emerges from those parts. The 20th Century observed the objectives as seen within a surrounding according to their respective elements taken together as a universal construction. The whole form or the gestalt advancement aimed at defining the principles governing perception where instinctive rational laws which determined the way the objects were generally perceived. The basis is on the now and here and the way things are viewed. This can be split into two main components, the ground or the figure and in the first glance what is one likely to see; either the background or the figure in front. The laws take various forms where the grouping of similar or neighboring objects together within the inclusive process. The theory has received criticism for merely being descriptive even though it has formed the foundation for further research into the perception of the patterns of objects. The gestalt theory also guides the research on the problem solving, thinking, behavior and psychopathology.
2. The behaviorist argues that psychology should not necessary employ the use of terminologies such as images, consciousness and mind. They further took time and give some thought to the argument on the cognitive concerns and the consequent paradigm shifts. The sociological and psychological social behavior is rooted on the same phenomenology, the interactionism and cognitive social psychology. The two have generally taken different paths where the sociological social behavior or symbolic interactionism is seen to be more of abstract in nature and a qualitative enterprise. The psychological or the cognitive social psychology is perceived as being empirical and quantitative in nature. The personality psychology looks the personality and the individual differences that focuses on person's ability to create a rational representation and the accompanying psychological processes, the investigation of the human nature in the context of how the individual's behavior is similar and also the study of the individual differences.
3. A close analysis of the mechanism used by companies when designing the advertisements for various products generally employees the various consideration of the behavior of the target audience in the planning stage. The variations and similarities have seen a given product having different promotion of the same products. The same concept has also been seen in movies and music industry where the message is customized to meet the information seeking behavior of the end users.
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