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The overall goal for teaching should be learning. As such learning goals are important for the teachers and faculty since they act as a guide as to where the students are supposed to be at a particular time after being taught for a specific period of time. When learning goals are clearly defined they can positively contribute to a structure surrounding  a course and can assist in the selection of appropriate grading assessments, in the selection of relevant and appropriate content for the course, and in the overall enhancement of the assessment or grading practices. Learning goals should not limit what is to be taught in a course but rather should provide a map that guides the students to where the course is going. In coming up with learning goals a teacher should first rely on what they know about that particular subject and on what they feel they can realistically teach that their students can realistically learn. One ought to think about the subject, concepts, topics, important skills, and vital areas of learning connected to the course during the development of the goals. These will eventually form the basis for goals, assessments, and the overall teaching and learning process to follow.

Before we are able to see and enjoy the fruits of the goals that we have set for ourselves, the goals have to be set first. Performance outcome goals are the goals that guide us to where we want to be after we have engaged in a certain activity. This maybe work related or task related. We all set goals that will guide us in our life, we plan as to when and how we will own our dream houses and as to where we want to see ourselves in the career ladder after a certain period of time. At the work place one may be given certain sales targets to reach over say a month. These are the targets that will act as motivations to enable one achieve the work related performance goals set for them. Companies’ similarly have long term and short term goals that we as staff have to see achieved through the work that we put in for the companies.

Some people however, argue that if our goals are being controlled by the expected outcome and only the outcome, our motivation may be high at first, but as we reach the first goal, then rthe benefits of more achievement on the same are significantly diminished, therefore motivation shall thus decrease. Thus these performance goals should be set higher than expected so as to ensure that people are motivated to work even harder to achieve them. Performance outcome goals can therefore distract employees from achieving task relevant strategies because the employees will only seek to find a strategy that will work towards assisting them reach the initially set targets for them. Once this strategy is achieved then they will relax and focus on one strategy without seeking to find further developments as this single strategy will enable them reach their targets. It is therefore important for those concerned to ensure that the targets they set for their employees are realistic enough to motivate them to seek more challenging ways of reaching them without compromising on the quality and quantity of work they are given.

The job performance of an individual can be measured in many ways. The big five dimensions are a way of categorizing people based on their personality traits. One can be said to have extraversion traits if they have characteristics such as sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and have high amounts of emotional expressiveness that makes these kind of people stand out. These are usually people that can work well in jobs that call for customer relations and customer care since they are easy to work with and deal with others. Agreeableness is another trait that involves attributes like trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other pro-social behaviors. Conscientiousness is another trait that is admirable in people. The features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness that are associated with important managemnt of their impulse and and their goals are have an influence on their behavior. Those high in who are consious tend to be very organized in their work and home environment and are critical to details. Another character trait is neuroticism whereby the individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety spells, moodiness, irritability, and are often sad. This is not a desirable trait since it has negative influences on the people that have this character and it is possible that they can pass on their negative feelings and moods to other people in their surroundings. An excess of these emotions can require medical intervention and medication for the person involved. Openness is another trait that has characteristics such as an active imagination and insight, and those in possession of this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests that can have a positive influence on their goals and make their achievements realistic. It is crucial to understand that all of the five personality factors stand a between two challenges. like extreme extraversion and extreme introversion represents a continuum between extraversions. People will tend to cheat in the real world, cheating somewhere in lies in the two polar ends of every dimension and this is usually acceptable as long as it does not bend towards the negative pole more than the positive pole.

Affirmative action refers to the policies that take into consideration factors such as race, religion, color, gender, sexual orientation or national origin in order to assist an otherwise underrepresented group achieve growth and is usually a means to counter the effects of a history of discrimination. Managing diversity on the other hand refers to the actions that are to be taken to ensure a balance and equity at the work place considering the wide variety of experiences and perspective which arise from the different people at the workplace due to their race, gender, religion, culture, mental or physical abilities, age, heritage, sexual orientation, gender identity and other characteristics. Organizations employ affirmative action so as to inclusive and ensure they cater to the needs of all who are involved in the society. It help to create oneness and community ownership.

Rational decision making models involve a cognitive process where each step is meant to follow the previous process in a logical order. By cognitive, it means that a model is based on thinking through and taking into account all the alternatives possible in that particular situation to come up with ways to reach the best potential results.


There are many types of rational models and as such there are numerous numbers of steps involved that will normally differ in different types of models. Normally it is assumed that decision making is equivalent to problem solving although some decisions are not problem oriented.  The normative model of decision making involves leaders following evaluation techniques that eventually lead to the determination of the type and frequency of effort that a decision may require to realize its potential. It seeks to find out if a team is required to fulfill a particular task or whether one can make an individual decision by themselves. If a team is to be engaged then it seeks to determine how much power the team is to be accorded to fulfill its mandate.

An attitude is a hypothetical representation of an individual’s feelings or disposition towards something or something, tendency or orientation especially in relation to the mind.   

Abraham Maslow developed his theory after defining the needs of human being are motivations based on a number of needs, this human these needs are in a hierarchical order. He believed that only that only the needs that have not been met can be able to have an influence on behavior. A met need cannot have any motivation on behavior. Alderfer constructed his theory based on Maslow’s hierarchical theory but he stated further that if that the lower need which have already been satisfied can be reactivated and has an effect in the influence of behavior if an individual fail to be satisfied by a higher need. McClelland believed and advanced a theory that stated that every individual will prioritize a need based on personal preferences thus people prioritize differently. He also believed that needs are acquired and no individual is born with needs.

There exist four types that can be found in an organization, this are parallel, project, work and management teams. Work teams are involved in the production in any organization as well as the provision of services. Parallel teams are involved in the advising as well as involvement with other teams. Project teams are involved in the project and development in an organization while the management team is involved in decision making, action and leading the organization in negotiations. They all play an important role to ensure that an organization works in harmony and is able to achieve its objectives. All the four teams are interdependent as none can function without the aid of the other. For the management, to function properly the parallel team has to do its work and the vice versa.

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