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In the initial paper, I was able to solve various issues in our institution. The school library system is now running smoothly, the back-up system has been installed and book theft cases have easily been dealt with and minimized. The system is highly advantageous and productive though its durability is yet to be tested by time. In the printing section, examinations, reports and any other material is being reproduced at a fast and reliable rate and there are no more failures after a shift from impact technology to laser jet. Hence, I have managed to increase speed while improving quality and reliability.
I have managed to identify various new areas of research given TRIZ analysis. Car companies like Johnson & Johnson, Ford and Daimler-Chrysler; aeronautics companies such as Boeing and NASA and computer giants Hewlett Packard and IBM, and mobile phone companies like Motorola, General Electric, Xerox, LG and Samsung have been using TRIZ methods in their projects. The global scale competition has become very stiff. It requires crisis and problem management while endeavoring to create opportunities. In any field of technologies, only the innovative enough to resolve current problems will succeed.
The problem of copyright protection in moving images can be solved by the TRIZ matrix. Recent progress in development of digital image handling has the contradiction of easing unlawful copying and plagiarism. Hence the world is contemplating on how to enforce copyright claims in the moving images to ensure copyright protection. I have come up with a solution based on TRIZ on visible watermarking which is based on contradiction. In the contradiction matrix: the improving factor is: the copyright mark must be clearly visible for it to work as a well-put statement on copyright yet the worsening factor, that is it should not be overly disturbing and very conspicuous to the viewers. The requirement necessitating that it should be seen but in the background is a physical contradiction in applying the TRIZ methodology. To solve this, I decided to use separation of time theorem. Therefore, the patent statement that will be drafted should make the copyright mark clearly visible in the static mode, but it will endeavor to make it unnoticeable in the display mode of the moving image due to the short display duration. This illustrates application of TRIZ principle of invention that recommends on skipping whereby it covers works on high-rapid performance of dangerous work. This brings a solution that cleverly and tactfully includes a copyright statement that is not intrusive at all.
Applications of TRIZ in science and technology have become very widespread and crucial. I up with a way of applying USIT standing for Unified Structured Inventive Thinking which uses simplified TRIZ to an actual technological problem. I have in particular looked at formation of polymers using a modification of the Smart-Little-Method as proposed by Altschuller to look at formation of a porous polymer sheet in order to increase its form ratio. In particular, when molten polymer is dissolved in a gas and is then forcefully extruded at a high pressure through a narrow slit-shaped nozzle, some gases manage to escape minimizing the size of the polymers. An ideal solution needs to be created such that no gases escape at all. The problem analysis can be tackled by using the Particle's method. The bubbles in the polymer should not grow large enough, increase in number, escape or increase in size. Therefore, I came up with a strategy to introduce a substance with desirable properties that can induce desirable actions such as a catalyst. Then, the desirable actions desired should be analyzed. Possible properties of the Particles that can be used in performing these actions are then analyzed.
When the analyst is listing up these actions and properties individually, some ideas may be generated in fragments and they require to be organized for implementation. By listing these elements in an organized and systematic scheme, a system of conceptual solutions on formation of polymers are clearly visualized.
TRIZ has been very instrumental when it comes to the field of aerodynamics. In this field, fuel efficiency needs to be improved since fuel costs are too high. It therefore necessitates solving the enigma through innovative thinking. Aerodynamics had been exhaustively covered until NASA came up with the idea of vertical winglets. This has been found to reduce drag at the wingtips which previously consumed a lot of fuel during lift force creation. The broad concept is fuel maximization in order to reduce costs. An ideal situation implies zero costs at zero harm. Since this is not possible, we shall settle for the closest approximation.
The forces acting on an aircraft wing in full flight illustrate how the engine provides power and how the lift is generated by the wings of the plane in motion, its own weight and the drag induced by the stream of air. In planes previously manufactured, there is minimal difference in the plane- lift coefficient when the aspect ratio, that is, wing length to width is adjusted to 8. The wing length is therefore eight times the wing width. This means the system improvements have been exhausted in respect to these criteria. When the system reaches its optimization limit, TRIZ becomes a necessary tool.
Plane wing-ends usually generate vortices that in turn generate a drag. This drag causes high fuel consumption hence increasing the costs of operation of planes. Drag is often reduced by use of a bigger wingspan. Specific tools are used to maximize on the wingspan- to tip-ratio to reduce drag. The wingspan cannot be increased further since it cannot fit the airport gates. This implies a contradiction whereby the force applied in order to reduce the drag is the improving factor while the length of the wingspan acts as a worsening factor.
The wingspan can be worsened by weight of the wing such that an infinitely long wing could have a lot of weight thus increasing cyclic stress which in turn reduce strength such as resistance to breaking and fatigue. This can be improved by various principles such as 35: Parameter changes 14: Curvature 9: Preliminary anti-action 3: Local quality: Another dimension 5: Merging 27: Cheap, short-living objects 7: Nested doll under the TRIZ contradiction table
Increasing the length of the wing will increase the weight of the wing but the plane will not fit at airport gates. Length is defined by the parameters: length of a stationary object and length of a moving object. To decide on the parameter to use consider this: the Length of the wingspan under length of the stationary object. The problem of the plane's accommodation comes up.
The relative motion between the air and wingspan causes drag which lowers lift, implying that the length of the moving object is the varying parameter. Our Contradiction matrix: improving factor is force and the worsening factor is length of wingspan of moving object. The Applicable Inventive principles are: 17: Another dimension 35: Parameter changes 9: Preliminary anti-action 3: Local quality 14: Curvature 19: Periodic action 28: Mechanical substitution and 36: Phase transitions.
We can therefore develop a solution. By increasing the aspect ratio, the induced drag reduces. Designers, however, must balance the benefits of lessening drag against the costs of increasing weights, increasing parasitic drag and budget allocation. Winglets efficiently provide a means of diverting air from the vortex-tip through generating aerodynamic side forces which enables a zero-effect on the drag- to lift-ratio since its normal to the wing and hence improving the lift-to drag-performance which ensures less fuel is consumed.
A blended winglet reduces the interference drag at the wing - winglet merger. A sharp interior angle can interact with the boundary layer flow which would cause a drag inducing vortex, worsening the benefits brought about by the winglet. The blended winglet should be joined to the wingtip at a constant radius curve, instead of a relatively sharp angle junction in order to reduce effects of shock between the winglet and the tip wing. This has gone further in the improvement of fuel consumption reduction and necessitates moving the winglet forward which eliminates problems with the roll up vortex hence reducing drag. Raked wingtips have been installed on some Boeing airliners whereby the tip of the wing has a larger degree of sweep than other parts of the wing in order to increase fuel efficiency and lift performance by use of a shorter field for take-off. Though a winglet is less effective than a wingspan of the same length, ground handling is simplified by winglets. Hence the short-range Boeing 787-3 design utilizes winglets instead of the raked wingtips.
The various principles presented as solutions that could be implemented are discussed: Principle 3: Local Quality: A homogeneous object should be made non-uniform like the blended wing which is an extension of the overall wing. Different parts of the plane should carry out entirely different functions such as: the wing enables lift while the winglet reduces vortex drag which would have reduced the lift.
Principle 17: Dimensionality Change: a raked wingtip considers moving out of line by change of dimension when the overall plane is moving in a straight direction. Use movements and dimensions outside the plane if an object is in motion inside the plane such as the vertical portion of the blended winglet.
Principle 5: Merging entails Combining, Consolidation and Integration: All identical or related objects should be physically joined or merged. Such is the case with winglets whereby in earlier generation planes, they were retrofitted but they are currently an integral part of today's planes.
Principle 14: Curvature involves spheroidality and increase in Curvature: Straight edges and flat surfaces should be turned into curves. Earlier version of the winglet had a sharp angle junction creating shock interference. Newer wings are using a curved junction to reduce this. Hence, implementation of these will enable reduced fuel consumption, environmental benefits whereby carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide emitted shall reduce. An increase in the flight speed, higher stability and a faster climb shall also be possible. The take-off distance shall also reduce such that shorter runways will be in use.
TRIZ has brought about an overwhelming change in the motor industry. The contradictions in this industry can range from speed versus durability and reliability; shape versus stability and reliability and ease of repair in comparison to issues such as productivity, strength and device complexity. In the United States, TRIZ-versed technologists emigrated from Russia and started consultancy services for needy companies since 1992. They carry out research for client companies, give training seminars to employees sponsored by these companies and generate TRIZ software tools. A number of consultancy firms in USA have are highly usage of TRIZ seem to vary among various industries. Core departments that are acutely in need of TRIZ methodologies have spared no costs in training their employees. The motor industry is one of these areas where TRIZ is being used to introduce a whole range of new ideas and concepts. In particular, USIT has been embraced by large corporate giants such as Ford Motor Company which has been very successful in these applications. Dr. Sickafus was the brain behind its adoption in Ford. Application of USIT began in the Electronics Division of Ford Motor Company and later moved to the Research Laboratories. The main aim of USIT is not to generate next-generation vehicles but rather is to solve the everyday problems. TRIZ has been in use in Japan particularly the Mitsubishi Motor Company. By the end of 1998, the Research Institute had generated and sold TRIZ software tools to over 50 companies and presented TRIZ seminars to more than 2000 people.
In evaluating TRIZ as a key motive force for technology and engineering innovations especially in boosting industrialization and achievement of Millennium Development goals, a slow but steady approach that emphasizes on continuous progress should be established. This will bring about a whole lot of changes in industries which I have analyzed as follows.
First, bring up well-versed pioneers in the host country's companies. This was the case in the United States when consultants came into the market. Though this was rather by chance, an effort to introduce knowledgeable technologists should be made. Next, enroll people and carry out awareness campaigns on people outside the company through public forums, seminars, and short training courses by use of knowledgeable instructors. Next, methodologies that have been in use are analyzed to come up with better ones. They are then applied in a real life setting in order to test their implementation of improved matrix and its effect on the worsening feature. Trials of these methodologies are then carried out by use of software tools such as TechOptimizer. If successful or if interesting information is discovered, the information should be published and posted on the websites. Next, the leaders of the methodology are brought out such as the background information on the subject matter, experiences on patents, practices in use, education and promotion. Then, the entire organization's specialists, staff and directors promote the engineered product as an organization. Finally, a mechanism campaigning for a broad and systematic introduction of these concepts comes into place after giving due consideration to personnel, budgets, the promoters, acknowledgement by other engineers and instrumentation. Throughout, flexibility rather than rigidity in the way of thinking should be insisted upon in order to ensure innovative ideas keep on coming up.
TRIZ can have a large impact on the field of education. Creative and innovative thinking has been emphasized. This enables one to gain knowledge on a whole range of issues while gaining experience. Already, Japan has modified its syllabus content it involves some of TRIZ's creative, flexible and innovative methodologies. Students, businessmen, technologists, managers are being empowered to solve their problems innovatively by considering both the feature to be improved and the constraint factor.
Under my research, I decided to analyze the law of transition to a super-system. When a system exhausts all the chances of further significant improvement, it's incorporated in a super-system, as one of its component parts. As a result, new development of the system becomes possible. The contradiction of drag reduction as an improvement factor versus length and weight came about as a result of this principle since any increase in length of the plane in relation to its width did not produce any considerable output. If no further system development can be done, the next stage is development of a super-system. In the 2-piece steel can manufacture, 3-piece steel can was brought out after the aluminum industry worn out and the final deliverable was better in design though similar to the former. In the case of a beverage can, there is need for compatibility and portability that will bring about technological evolution though current systems have already lowered cost, large and There is need to envision how the super-system looks like which if answered, it brings about an innovative and creative solution which proposes a total overhaul of the entire system.
In the motor industry, certain aspects have been totally changed. Past centuries evolved from a steam engine to internal combustion engine which have a larger engine capacity; change in wheels to incorporate tyres and tubes to current day technology of tubeless tyres in order to improve aspects such as durability and reliability of the object in motion while ensuring comfort. Currently, the motor industry has fully exhausted use of petroleum products in running machines. Motor companies are already carrying out research on possible use of gasoline and solar energy. Eugene Rivin has also proposed a way of attaining a solution for the accessory drive for internal combustion engines by the application of the law of transition to a super-system. The energy generated is not only used for propulsion but also other function such as air conditioning, radio and music play and power steering . All cars' accessories are set in motion by the crankshaft through a serpentine belt drive with two belts which come into contact with active and tensioning pulleys. The constant twisting and stretching of the belts, combined with high-speed engines precludes V-belts use as part of the solution. The productivity of every accessory unit depends directly on its size and rpm capacity. The critical range is said to be at idle speed, because accessories maintain their lowest rpm at this regime. Usually, there is an accelerating transmission ratio caused by the crankshaft connecting with the accessories. With a fixed transmission ratio, performance of the alternator might be inadequate at idle if the battery is low. In such situations, the Electronic Engine Control unit (EEC) increases engine rpm output, resolving the problem, but this event creates an increase in engine energy loses. To alleviate the problem, the size of accessory units could be reduced if their rpms at idle were increased.
However, increasing the transmission ratio would result in even greater and unacceptable rpms of the accessory units at high engine speeds. There is a definite contradiction conflict whereby the transmission ratio should be manageable in order to prevent high loss of energy and preserve the environment while on the other hand the transmission ratio should be high to sufficiently provide the required energy. TRIZ principles can be applied to generate a solution as follows: It appears that the two latter approaches cannot be applied in this case. Application of the first, however, suggests that the transmission ratio should be high at low engine rpm, such as at idle and low at high engine rpm, such as during rapid acceleration. In other words, this situation can be reformulated as a design conflict, and resolved with known TRIZ principles
Unfortunately, it is impossible to obtain a solution with the conventional poly-V belt transmission. There are no known designs for variable transmission ratio poly-V belt transmissions. The only commercially available variable transmission ratio belt drives, are drives using V-belts in conjunction with adjustable-width pulleys. There are also patents, dated as far back as 1901, on variable transmission ratio belt drives using segmented pulleys with adjustable radial positioning of the segments.
An analytical comparison of these variable transmission ratio belt drives has been performed, and two prototypes of the flat belt drives were fabricated. Neither of these turned out suitable for the accessory drive system. As for the variable transmission ratio V-belt drive, while it satisfies the need for the ratio adjustment in the required range, it cannot be used for the multi-pulley drive system due to its inadequate fatigue life. At the same time, while the fatigue life of flat belts is adequate, variable diameter pulleys are exceptionally heavy and not adequately reliable because of the large number of segments they employ.
The Law of Transition to a Higher-Level System is key to this solution. It states that when systems exhaust their performance potential, combining two or more systems into a higher-level system may result in a significant performance enhancement. Application of this Law was ultimately the impetus for developing a combined V-belt/flat belt variable transmission ratio drive for engine accessories. In this system, the V-belt is used to provide for the required variable transmission ratios while the flat belt drives most of the accessories. In this design the V-belt has a long fatigue life because repeated bending is avoided. This design also reveals that even in the case of the most demanding power accessory like the alternator driven directly by the V-belt, the flat/poly-V belt can be made thinner, hence further improving performance of the overall system. (Mann, 2007)
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