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According to May (1977), anxiety can be defined as a physiological and psychological state illustrated by somatic, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional elements. These elements come together to bring about a bitter feeling that is characteristically associated with apprehension, uneasiness, worry or fear. Anxiety is a universal humor condition which can frequently come about without a recognizable activating stimulus. Anxiety can be distinguished from fear, which comes about in the occurrence of a noticeable threat. Furthermore, fear is associated with the particular behaviors of avoidance and escape, while anxiety is the outcome of threats which are sensed to be unavoidable or unmanageable.


Portenoy & Kanner (1996) define pain as an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience related with potential or actual tissue hurt, or depicted in terms of such hurt. Pain is the experiencing that is familiar to such feels for instance burning a finger, stubbing a toe, knocking the funny bone, and putting common salt on an open wound. They further define pain management as a subdivision of medicine applying an interdisciplinary overture for alleviating the suffering so as to bring about quality of life to those individuals experiencing pain. The usual pain management squad comprise of clinical psychologists, medical practitioners, occupational therapists, nurse practitioners, and physiotherapists.

From the studies done by Macintyre & S. (2007), it is apparent that acute pain generally disappears as the illness or an injury resolves. In some case pain endures for an extended period of time, even when the causer of the pain had long gone or as a result of the injury still persisting, it turns into a chronic state. If this persistent pain is inadequately cared for, the lives if families and individuals can be impeded and as a result it brings about an immense burden in over-utilizing health care, costs of pain-linked disability moving up, and reduced work productivity.  Therefore immediate effective medical intervention of acute pain is vital. 

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Chronic pain is a pronounced problem for both children and adults. Studies by Schechter, Berde & Yaster (2003) suggest that chronic pain may touch on children to the extent of twenty percent in a given population. Frequent causes of enduring pain in children comprise of stomach pain, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, sickle cell crisis, cancer, and arthritis. Some of the barriers to effectual pain alleviation in the population of young children consist of the fact that it is not easy for young children to communicate pain they are undergoing as the adults can do hence the symptom of pain might be disregarded.  

A research by Rachman (2004) suggests that untreated pain can place children at chances of acquiring chronic pain which can result into anxiety afterwards in life. For instance, it has been found that most children obtain twenty four immunizations earlier before they attain two years during which their pain is discounted or ignored. Such pain, even if brief, possibly can be extremely intense leading to long-lived anxiety. Those infants undergoing circumcision without being introduced to anesthetics have been shown to exhibit extra pain during successive regular immunizations than those children who did not undergo circumcision.

Attempts to ameliorate the management of chronic pain as well as decrease inconsistencies in pain care will better the quality of life, bring down health care costs and reduce disability for millions of people. Some of the attempts are acquired only by carrying out research. Most beneficial practices in pain alleviation continue to be largely influenced by clinical familiarity. Research is very important in pain management in that, it can make it possible for new therapies to be identify, improve the base of evidence to defend constituted approaches, and offer clinical direction by comparative effectualness data.   The inadequately funded pain research as well as absence of comparative effectualness data can result into detained evolution of new treatments (Portenoy& Kanner, 1996).

Attempts to reduce the burden of uncontrollable chronic pain becomes is a societal requirement, an economic requirement as well as a medical challenge. If a chronic pain is not realized and treated just like a chronic illness, it takes a tremendous personal cost on a great number of patients and their respective families, and results into increased costs for health care. Chronic pain can compromise the productiveness of any given country's workforce as well as result into development of anxiety in individuals. It is very important for a nation to take the necessary steps to understand chronic pain as a chronic illness of its own and address this public health situation at once. This can be made possible through the researches carried out by health practitioners if the researches are well funded.

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