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Research proposal is a process that usually outlays the dynamic framework fostered by the research method and data analysis produced from the research study. This research proposal is intended to induce others that the presented research project is worthwhile and that there is capability and proper work plan for its completion. According to Punch (2000) he states that usually the research proposal usually contains the key elements that are requisite to the research proposal process and also foster relevant concrete information which the readers can use to evaluate the proposed study.
However, scholars have articulated that regardless of the research area and the kind of chosen methodology. Then it is correct if the research proposal addresses the following questions; the accomplishment plan, the need for executing the proposal and how this process will be executed (Robson, 2002; Becker & Bryman, 2004). This paper shall centralize on the formulation of research proposal as a process and also analyze the main key stages in the process.
Each of the stages in the proposal usually pinpoints the subject importance. The first chapter will centralize on the introduction, scope and importance of the study. This part usually is the elementary part which details to the reader if the scope of the study has importance and relevance.
Chapter two which covers the literature review of the research proposal is usually tricky and majority of the pursuant of this topic usually fail because of not being conscience and elaborative. This is the backbone of the study and the reader should be well informed concerning the subject. Different research instrument are induced to gather relevant information for the literature review (Beiske, 2002). A strong literature review should be well defined and reviewed in order to expose the existing gaps and also to offer an insight into the needs of the current study and future study of the subject.
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Chapter three, in this chapter the research method of data collection, finding and analysis are detailed. This is the hardest part of the research proposal process. This is because there are limitations on data collection and verification of the data is also another major obstacle. Some of the limitation includes the target group providing wrong and bias information, and refusing to assist in the research (Yu & Cooper, 1983).
This chapter covers the research findings of the study being researched. Computation of the data and analysis are also evaluated in this chapter. The limitation in chapter three usually also affects this chapter (Creswel, 2008).
This chapter usually summarizes the whole research through conclusions of the study from the research finding, the considered recommendation and considered suggestion which would facilitate future research.
The proposal is required to have ample information which convinces the reader that the research idea is of great importance, that the pursuant have good knowledge concerning the relevant literature and key issues, and that the methodology has a sound thesis as noted by Punch (2005).
The quality of the research proposal usually relies on the proposed project quality, and also the writing quality of the proposal. The quality of the writing so that it does drown on the risk of being rejected should be coherent, compelling and clear (Blaxter, 2001).
Research Proposal Outline
The title of the research proposal should always be on point with the topic subject, precise and descriptive. The title is usually stated according to the subject functional relationship; this is because the titles should distinctly indicate variables that are independent and dependent. Informative title should be induced to capture the reader's interest also to predispose them auspiciously gravitated to the proposal as noted by Bell (2005).
The abstract shall contain mostly a brief analysis of the research question, the study rationale, hypothesis, method and the research main findings. According to Creswel (2008) the description will also include design, sample, design and the entire instruments to be used in the method.
This chapter examines the background to the study, the statement of the research problem and the purpose of the study. The research objectives, the research questions, the justification, importance and scope of the study are also discussed. This chapter for it to fully meet the desired objective should be concise and descriptive. This shall also briefly describe the entire major problem entitled to the subject (Hart, 2003).
Background of the Problem:
This will centralize on describing briefly the major issues and sub-problems which will be addressed in the research proposal as echoed by Swetnam (2001).
Statement of the Problem:
This will centralize on the main question or the project charter. This will focus on the problem of which narrows the solution scope of the study. The problem statement details that research study context and generates generally questions which the study attempts too solve as exemplified by Yin (2006).
Purpose of the Study:
This shall centralize on the main scope of the study the main function of the proposal and how it shall benefit the targeted population as noted by Callender (2008).
This will help answer or offer solution to the hypothesis
Importance of the Study:
This shall detail the advantage associated with this proposal
Definition of Terms:
All the term which are used are going to be defined for further elucidation of the topic.
Delimitations and Limitations:
This shall focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the main study and how they affect the population and target audience.
Chapter Two: Review of the Literature
In this chapter, the main subject on the research proposal and the impact on its performance to the target audience will be given an in depth analysis and different literatures will be reviewed (Bryman, 2008).
The research will allow for location of literature from variety of sources. The sources of literature will be textbook, magazines, the internet, journals, previous research works and observation related to the issue at stake.
These will help to analyze and clarify, strengthen and accordingly direct each stage of research from the formulation of research topic to the dissemination and utilization of research finding. The literature on the research subject and its impact on the target audience will be reviewed with a view to expose the existing gaps to offer an insight into the needs of the current study.
Chapter Three: Research Methods
Qualitative and Quantitative Approach:
Qualitative research and quantitative research approaches will be used during the study, this will enable the research to be broad and cover all the requirements of the research topic (Beiske, 2002).
The Researcher's Role:
The main researcher's roles would issue of questionnaires, sampling and conducting of interviews.
The source of data would be journals of related issues, websites, magazines, text books and previous works reviews.
Sampling strategies that will be used to obtain the sample population included; random sampling, stratified random sampling and careful biased sampling (Creswell, 2003). Use of random sampling ensures that a group of the entire population is selected to represent it in the research being done.
This will involve all medium of data collection such as questionnaires, observation, stratified sampling, qualitative and quantitative analysis.
The data required will be obtained through perusal of secondary as well as primary data sources.
The primary sources of data collection to be used depending on where they were most applicable will include: interviews, observation and questionnaires.
Materials from the library, internet and related research reports will be used to provide the required data and information. Internal sources to be sort after include information compiled by local institution which are concerns the main subject. External data sources included from the government sources, previous research studies and academic institution (Benson, 1946).
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The data required will be obtained through perusal of secondary as well as primary data sources.
Verification: The data will collected through use of the various instruments, will first be thoroughly edited and checked for completeness and comprehensibility (Creswell, 2003). Then the edited data will be summarized and coded for easy classification to facilitate tabulation.
Data will also be analyzed using non parametric statistics. The collected information will be filtered to clean it, modeling and transformation will be done in a way that will expose useful information in drawing of conclusion and recommendation, then codification follows. Descriptive statistics will also be employed in analyzing the data. T-test will also be used to test hypothesis and research questions as echoed by Yu & Cooper, (1983).
Due to the fact that the research work revolves around human subjects, very high levels of ethical standards need to be mentioned throughout the study. Some of the ethical considerations are confidentiality and privacy of the interviewees (Beiske, 2002). Ethical issues which are to be considered are;
i) The target population of the study will be and opt to be informed about the study in advance. The reason for carrying out the research and how they stand benefit will be thoroughly explained to them prior to the real study.
ii) The information to be collected will only to be offered voluntarily without any influence for instance giving of incentives, rewards, and gifts.
iii) The collected data is exclusively to be used for the intend purpose and shared with the research team.
iv) The identities of the respondents opt not to be included anywhere in the work for confidentiality.
v) Option of being ethical in providing guidelines as well as necessary information to respondent and not give knowingly wrong/false information. In addition, one should not be judgment of information given during an interview and be as neutral as possible during the process.
Chapter Four: Research Findings
In this chapter the researcher presents the actual findings of the study. The data is analyzed and finding stated with graphs and charts.
Chapter 5: Conclusions, Discussion and Suggestions for Future Research
The paper will finalize to conclude that a more open agency policy will foster a trustworthy relationship with the target audience and how the subject can be made better to suit the demand of the target population.
The paper shall here recommend all other consideration which was viewed to be essential to this study. This shall also outline further future ideology concerning this research.
Questionnaires used in the research.
Ethic forms written to the participants for thanking them and showing the approval of the research.